Sony A6000 & NEX top Nikon for travel, 11x lens

Please read my separate Sony A6300 review before delving into the earlier Sony A6000, NEX-6 and NEX-7 below.


For photography on-the-go in 2012-15, I ditched my DSLR and carried a mirrorless Sony Alpha NEX-7 camera with optimally sharp, versatile E-mount Sony 18-200mm f3.5-6.3 OSS lens, together just 33 ounces. In 2014, the new Sony A6000 replaced NEX cameras:

2014-15: Sony A6000 with 16-50mm Lens (2014, 12 oz body + 4 oz lens) introduced blazingly Fast Hybrid Autofocus built into a 24mp sensor and antiquated the earlier NEX-7 and NEX-6 discussed below. Sony A6000 is the world’s best travel camera of 2014-15, capturing the sharpest images with the fastest autofocus in the smallest box. Using Continuous autofocus at an amazing 11 frames per second, A6000 will track moving subjects right up to the edges of the frame, even recognizing and tracking faces. Compared to earlier Sony NEX-6 or NEX-7: the A6000 is superior except lacks a horizontal level indicator and has poorer resolution in the viewfinder (1.44 million dots vs 2.36 million; with slightly smaller magnification 0.70x versus 0.73x in terms of 35mm-equivalent) (or 1.07x versus 1.09x in terms of APS-C). For on-the-go photography and international travel, carry one or both of the following portable cameras:

  1. Sony Alpha A6000 camera mounted with 16-50mm E-mount lens (16 oz total) or sharper Sony 18-200mm OSS E-mount SEL18200 silver lens (33 oz total).
  2. Sony DSC-RX100 camera version III (10 oz, 2014) − read my RX100 article.

The “best” travel camera is the one you want to bring everywhere. Before the Sony A6000 was introduced, for the sharpest images from the smallest box, a top choice was Sony Alpha NEX-7 camera with 24 megapixels (mp) or Sony NEX-6 with 16-50mm Retractable Zoom lens — much smaller than a DSLR camera! Mirrorless interchangeable lens compact (ILC) cameras have revolutionized travel photography beyond the legacy of DSLR designs.

The archive article below reviews Sony NEX-7 and NEX-6 advantages, disadvantages, workarounds, lenses, autofocus/Manual/macro tips, firmware updates, and compares to a Nikon D5000 DSLR and Sony RX100 pocket camera.

Horse wrangler on dusty Park Butte Trail, Mount Baker Wilderness, Washington, USA.

A cowboy guides horses along dusty Park Butte Trail in Mount Baker Wilderness, Washington. Capture great spontaneous shots with Sony E-mount 18-200mm f3.5-6.3 OSS lens. Good travel photography demands an 11x zoom like this for rapidly framing from wide angle to telephoto within seconds. (Photo zoomed to 140mm telephoto, 1/125th sec, at f/8, on Sony Alpha NEX-7 camera.)

Mount the 18-200mm lens on Sony Alpha A6000  which has very fast Hybrid Autofocus (beating NEX-6 and -7). Sony says A6000 autofocus (as fast as 0.06 seconds) is the world’s fastest on a mirrorless camera with an APS-C image sensor as of 2014.

Sony NEX-7 and NEX-6 versus Nikon D5000

The Sony Alpha NEX-7 shaves 12 ounces and improves large-print quality by up to 40% compared to my former DSLR, a Nikon D5000 with Nikon 18-200mm VR II lens (a top 2009 camera weighing 45 oz including lens, cap, hood, battery and strap). Sony Alpha NEX-6 shaves 14 ounces and improves image quality by 25% compared to a Nikon D5000 with 18-200mm lens.

Drop the bulky DSLR mirror box and upgrade to the instant feedback of an exquisite OLED electronic viewfinder (EVF) in a Sony Alpha NEX-6 or NEX-7 camera, to double the area visible through the viewfinder compared to most DSLR cameras! (1.09x linear magnification for NEX versus 0.78x for Nikon D5000 and others, measured in terms of APS-C.)

NEX-7 autofocus speed is fine for landscapes and moderate action (see horse rider photo). But the newer NEX-6 (now beat by A6000’s AF) accelerates autofocus with Hybrid AF (modifying a 16mp sensor with pixels devoted to phase detection), reducing shutter lag near DSLR speed.

For framing distant subjects or wildlife, digitally cropping the amazing 24 mp resolution of a Sony NEX-7 now saves me from carrying an extra telephoto lens when trekking. (When shot on a Nikon D5000, image resolution from 70 to 250mm on my former 26-ounce Nikon 70-300mm zoom lens is effectively beaten by the all-in-one Sony 18-200mm lens on a higher-resolution NEX-7, when cropped to match the angle of view of up to 250mm.)

A pricey NEX-7 has a huge 24mp sensor (highest for APS-C Type cameras in 2012) for larger prints and sharper cropping to enlarge wildlife or birds. More economical was the 16-mp NEX-6, which thankfully added Hybrid AF (improved autofocus speed), a physical mode dial, Wi-Fi connectivity, and Quick Navi menu (all of which are sadly not found in NEX-7, which annoyingly requires 3 menu button presses to change modes P, A, S, M, SCN, etc). For travel, the LE version Sony 18-200mm OSS black SEL18200LE lens  (16-oz) is a good match for NEX-6, whereas NEX-7 demands a Sony 18-200mm f3.5-6.3 OSS silver SEL18200 lens (18.5 oz) or prime lenses further below.

On the go, protect your camera and 18-200mm lens in a Lowepro Toploader Zoom 50 AW Bag (which I carry on a custom chest harness for hiking and traveling).

Read my review/BUY page to compare with other camera brands such as Canon and Nikon — see how I decided that NEX was best!

More details

In 2013, sharp photographers could pack the most-portable punch with the amazing Sony Alpha NEX-6 with 16-50mm Retractable Zoom lens (12 oz body + 4 oz lens, 24-75mm equiv), which saved $350 and 2 oz of body weight compared to a Sony NEX-7 camera.

Both NEX-6 and NEX-7 cameras squeeze more impressive features than ever into a small box:

  • A high-res OLED Electronic Viewfinder (2,359,000 pixels, superb 1.09x magnification) gives more accurate feedback on a final digital image than a non-digital optical viewfinder. The sharp EVF appears larger than the camera’s external screen and is easier to see in bright daylight.
  • A tilting 921,600-dot LCD jump-starts your creative macro, movie, and candid shooting comfortably at arm’s length.
  • NEX-7 beats rival APS-C sensor cameras for resolution, with 3400 resolvable lines per picture height (LPH) from raw files (versus 2800 LPH for NEX-6 and 2400 LPH for Nikon D5000, each measured on prime lenses).
    • NEX-7 raw files (name extension .ARW) resolve more detail than a costlier full-frame-sensor Canon EOS 6D or 5D Mark III (2800 LPH) from ISO 100-1600. For capturing lower noise, full-frame cameras of 2012 require ISO settings above 1600 to clearly beat NEX-7 or -6.
    • Upgrading to a resolution higher than NEX-7’s costs much more:
  • NEX-6/NEX-7 capture excellent dynamic range (bright to dark) and the lowest noise at high ISO compared to APS-C rivals.
    • Using ISO 6400 capturing dim action indoors, my NEX-7 shot publishable images for a spotlit theater production.
  • TIP: When shooting at ISO ≥800, capture 1 stop less noise by using Anti Motion Blur (my favorite) or Hand-held Twilight mode. Both modes can automatically set ISO up to 6400, thereby working around Auto ISO being sadly restricted to ≤1600.
    • Hand-held Twilight (a Scene mode under SCN) helps get sharper low-noise, low-light shots of static subjects without a tripod for ISO ≥800. Six frames are auto-shot continuously then stacked into a single JPEG image to lower noise levels (requiring 8 seconds processing time, delaying the next possible shot). Hand-held Twilight mode cannot create a raw file, but the resulting improvement in hand-held JPEG image quality couldn’t otherwise be captured.
    • Anti Motion Blur (set directly on virtual mode dial) likewise makes a JPEG file but favors faster shutter speeds to freeze action or steady hand-held telephoto, at the cost of setting ISO higher (noisier) than Hand-held Twilight mode.
  • Sweep Panorama mode instantly stitches exciting JPEG panorama images horizontally or vertically (although manually stitching panoramas from multiple raw files is reliably superior in  Adobe Lightroom software version 6 or in Adobe Photoshop software).
  • Sony NEX ingeniously pops-up a small flash, which can be tilted up for bounce. For brighter reach and to avoid shadows from 18-200mm lens, mount Sony HVL-F20AM flash on NEX-7 (but NEX-6 requires Sony ADP-MAA Multi-Interface Shoe Adapter).

Travel zoom lenses for Sony Alpha A6300, A6000, A5100, and NEX cameras

  • For remarkable portability, instead of the Sony E-mount 18-55mm lens Standard Zoom bundled with some NEX-7 kits, consider the world’s most compact 3x zoom lens for APS-C:
  • Sony E-mount 18-200mm f/3.5-6.3 OSS silver (SEL-18200) lens (18.5 oz) on a NEX-7 captures the highest quality images for the smallest weight of any 11x zoom system for APS-C sensors of 2013.
    • This 18-200mm “all-in-one” lens captures sufficiently-high quality for my professional print publications, such that no other lens on this page need be carried.
    • See “Advantages/Disadvantages of Sony 18-200mm OSS lens” sections further below.
    • The Sony 18-200mm silver (SEL-18200) lens with 67mm filter size is clearly sharper than the newer, slightly smaller 16-oz Sony 18-200mm OSS black SEL18200LE lens  with 62mm filter size (new 2012, colored black). I recommend SEL-18200 for NEX-7 or NEX-6, but the black LE version (SEL-18200LE) only for a NEX-6 due to its lower resolution.
    • Tip: Blur Index Test A (2011) shows SEL-18200 is sharpest around f/5.6 to f/8 through its 11x range.
    • Other lens choices below depend upon your budget and willingness to swap lenses:
  • Sony 10-18mm f/4 OSS Alpha E-mount wide-angle zoom lens (8 oz, 2.75×2.5 inches, SEL1018, 2012) is significantly sharper than SEL-18200. Sharpest at f/5.6 to f/8 as you zoom, with least distortion from 14-18mm, good for shooting architecture indoors and out, plus landscapes and slot canyons.
  • Sony FE 24-240mm f/3.5-6.3 OSS E-mount lens (27.5 oz, 36-360mm equiv, 2015) favors telephoto reach in a good 10x travel zoom (about equal in sharpness to similar SEL-18200).
  • Sony E-mount PZ 18-105mm F4 G OSS (15 oz, SELP18105G, 2014) 6x zoom, APS-C-only lens: suffers from large (correctable) pincushion distortion. SELP18105G is as sharp as SEL-18200, and is a bit sharper than SEL-18200LE in the image center from 50-105mm.
  • Sony Vario-Tessar T* E-mount 16-70mm F4 ZA OSS lens (11 oz, SEL1670Z, 2013) 4x zoom, beats kit lens sharpness. Slightly beats SELP18105G and SEL-18200 from 18-70mm.
  • Sony E-mount 55-210mm (SEL55210) lens is sharper than SEL-18200. Reviewer Kurt Munger says “If you have a travel zoom, like Tamron NEX 18-200mm or Sony NEX 18-200mm, and find yourself using it mostly at the long end, the Sony 55-210mm would be a much better choice if sharpness is your major concern.”
  • Sony E-mount 70-200mm F4 G OSS lens (30 ounces, SEL70200G, 2014) premium glass supports new Sony A7/A7R full-frame-sensor (FE Series) cameras, as well as Sony A6000, NEX-7, and NEX-6.

In 2016, Sigma’s lens line-up is now available for Sony E-Mount bodies by using a Sigma Mount Converter MC-11 (2016, ~3 oz, $250, compatible with Sony A7 FE-mount series, A6300, A6000, and NEX) giving full stabilization and autofocus for Sigma’s Canon-mount and Sigma-mount lenses. Here’s a super telephoto option:

Note that Sony A-mount 70-400mm F4-5.6 G SSM II lens (53 oz, 3.7 x 7.7 inches, SAL-70400G2, 2013) or previous Sony SAL-70400G lens can be adapted onto a NEX camera using Sony LA-EA2 Adaptor (7 oz, with translucent mirror for fast phase detection autofocus) but lacks OSS, thereby limiting hand-held photography and increasing tripod usage.

SEL vs SAL Sony lenses

For NEX, I recommend Sony “SEL” E-mount lenses, but not necessarily lenses coded SAL. Sony SAL lenses are designed for full-frame (and APS-C) Alpha DSLR cameras, requiring a hefty 7-ounce A-mount adapter (Sony LA-EA2 Adaptor) for lens autofocus to work on an E-mount NEX. The few choices for E-mount (SEL) lenses may motivate adapting certain SAL lenses onto a NEX. But using an adapter may decrease quality and doesn’t support image stabilization on a NEX. Also, SAL lenses are heavier, requiring larger diameter glass than would an E-mount lens of the same focal length designed for APS-C-only.

NEX-6/NEX-7 cameras don’t need an adapter to support full-frame E-mount “FE Series” SEL lenses (announced October 2013 along with Sony A7 and A7R full frame E-mount cameras). The pricier FE Series glass diameter transmits an image circle large enough to cover a full frame sensor, meaning that the (smaller) APS-C sensor in NEX cameras can take advantage of the sharp center sweet-spot with little vignetting.

Prime (non-zoom) E-mount lenses for Sony A6000 and NEX-7

If you don’t mind swapping lenses or spending more for the sharpest possible images, a bright prime lens takes full advantage of a 24mp A6000 or NEX-7 (but not so much for a 16mp NEX-6 or NEX-5). Prime lenses (having fixed-focal-length and bright maximum aperture) are a bit sharper than kit zooms sold with a camera. Below are four good prime lenses for a NEX-7:

  1. Sony 50mm f/1.8 OSS E-mount prime lens (SEL-50F18, 7.1 oz)
    • has Optical SteadyShot (OSS) for sharper hand-held photos without a tripod
    • offers good value for the money (about $300)
    • has pleasing bokeh for portraits at f/1.8 to f/2.8 (but its angle-of-view is too narrow to be an all-purpose “standard” lens)
    • is sharpest from about f/4 to f/8 (on Blur Index Test B for SEL50F18 on a NEX-5).
    • is up to 3 stops brighter than Sony’s 18-200mm lens (SEL-18200), from f/4.5 to f/1.8
      • Caveat: If sharpness is your only goal, the Sony 50mm lens only beats SEL-18200 at f/5.6 to f/8 when tested on a NEX-5 (which may also be true for NEX-6). However, SEL-50F18 may beat SEL-18200 at a brighter range of F stops on a NEX-7 (see dxomark.com). Test results on a NEX-5: compared to SEL-18200 Blur Index Test A (2011) zoomed to 50mm (where brightest aperture is f/5), a prime Sony 50mm lens (Blur Index Test B for SEL50F18) has slightly sharper corners at f/5.6 to f/8. But the Blur Index for SEL-50F18 from f/1.8 to f/2 resembles SEL-18200 at f/16, its f/2.8 is as sharp as SEL-18200 at f/11, and its f/4 is as sharp as SEL-18200 at f/8.
  2. Sony 35mm f/1.8 OSS E-mount prime lens (SEL35F18, 5.5 oz)
    • has Optical SteadyShot (OSS) for sharper hand-held photos (without a tripod), as slow as a quarter of a second, an improvement of over 3 stops slower shutter speed!
    • serves well as a high-quality standard lens (about $450).
    • is sharpest at f/5 at infinity and f/4 at two feet.
  3. Sony 24mm f/1.8 E-mount prime Carl Zeiss Sonnar lens (SEL-24F18Z, 7.9 oz, sadly lacking OSS)
    • may be sharpest of the four, but costs several times the others’ price (about $1100).
    • Blur Index Test C shows that SEL-24F18Z is sharpest around f/2.8 to f/5.6.
    • **When tested on a NEX-5, compared to SEL-18200 Blur Index Test A (2011) zoomed to about 24mm (where its brightest aperture is f/4), a Sony 24mm lens (SEL-24F18Z) is slightly sharper at the corners at f/4, blurrier from f/8 to f/22, and impressively sharp at f/2.8 (like SEL-18200 at f/5.6), but its f/1.8, f/2, and f/11 are blurrier than SEL-18200 at f/11. (You must average results at 18 and 35mm zoom settings on SEL-18200 Test A to interpolate 24mm for comparison to Sony Zeiss 24mm lens.)
  4. Sigma 30mm f/2.8 DN prime lens for E-mount (4.8 oz, sadly lacking OSS)
    • is a great value standard lens (about $200), excellent for landscapes, but not as sharp or bright as Sony SEL-24F18Z.

**Note: Real world lens use often makes lab testing moot. In Blur Index Tests A, B, and C (above) done on a 16mp NEX-5 in 2011, the 50mm and 24mm Sony prime lenses don’t have a striking advantage over using the SEL-18200 lens; but later tests at dxomark.com (2013) indicate clear advantages of using these prime lenses on a 24mp NEX-7. The above Blur Index Tests A, B, C measure sharpness at the optimal focus plane, found by focus bracketing on a NEX-5.

Today’s constantly improving quality and diversity of cameras give us many great tools for the job. Portrait photographers often want lenses designed for attractive bokeh (the artistic character of out-of-focus areas) at bright apertures such as f/2.8 and f/1.8. But optimal sharpness for a lens on APS-C and full frame cameras is usually a few stops down from brightest aperture, as shown in the above Tests A, B, C. Landscape photographers like me often say “f/8 is great” as we care about both highest resolution of detail and depth of field. Depth of field increases at higher F numbers such as f/11 to f/16, but diffraction through progressively smaller openings limits sharpness (blurs the resolution of image detail).

Prime lenses tend to be sharper than zooms. But I find that a Sony 11x zoom (silver SEL-18200) easily captures publication quality on NEX-7 and instantly frames rapidly-changing travel subjects without the extra bulk and annoyance of swapping lenses.

Secret MENU one-time settings improve Manual Focus for NEX-7

  1. CAMERA > AF/MF Select > DMF  (helpfully allows Direct Manual Focus with turn of focus ring after autofocus lock during half-press of the shutter release button)
  2. SETUP > AF/MF Control > Toggle  (is better than “Hold” option to better grasp the camera steadily)
  3. SETUP > MF Assist > ON  (enlarges MF view, optimally for 2 seconds)
  4. SETUP > MF Assist Time > 2 seconds
  5. SETUP > CUSTOM KEY SETTINGS > AF/MF Button > AF/MF Control   (lets AF/MF Button enable MF mode / lens focus ring)

In dim or low-contrast lighting, if autofocus fails to lock (thereby preventing DMF), try MF mode, arranged as above. Point the AEL swivel-switch to AF/MF, then press AF/MF Button to invoke MF, then turn manual focus ring on lens. When set as Toggle, MF mode stays in effect even after pressing the shutter button, unless cancelled by pressing AF/MF Button again or any other button. (Note: Sony’s 18-200mm lens has no built-in MF switch and relies on the above body settings.)

To set up MF default and create an AF button (to disconnect half-press focusing by shutter release button), you can change two settings above:

  • CAMERA > AF/MF Select > MF
  • SETUP > AF/MF Control > Hold 
  • Now holding down the AF/MF Button locks autofocus (instead of half pressing the shutter button).

Sony A6000 beats Olympus OM-D E-M5 and E-M10 systems

The best splash-proof, dust-proof, hardy midsize camera of 2014-2015 for travel (with Micro Four Thirds sensor) was the Olympus OM-D E-M5 Micro Four Thirds Digital Camera (Mark I) (2012, 15 oz weather sealed body) with splash-proof M.ZUIKO DIGITAL ED 12-50mm f/3.5-6.3 EZ lens (24-100mm equiv, 7.5 oz, with splendid video, macro down to 36×27 mm).

  •  Compare cameras:
    • Sony A6000 with 16-50mm lens (2014, 12 oz body + 4 oz lens with Fast Hybrid Autofocus, 24mp) beats Olympus OM-D E-M5 in price, AF speed, and more (except E-M5 has a weather sealed body).
    • Olympus OM-D E-M10 Camera (Mark I, 2014, WITHOUT a weather-sealed body) is $300 cheaper than an E-M5, for equal image quality. But Sony A6000 easily beats Olympus E-M10 (due to larger sensor APS-C versus Micro 4/3, faster autofocus, smaller body, longer CIPA battery life of 420 shots per charge versus 320, faster 11 fps continuous shutter, and more movie modes; with equal viewfinder & LCD).
  • Olympus OM-D E-M5 features: high res Electronic Viewfinder (EVF), tilting 610,000-dot OLED LCD, 5-axis sensor-shift image stabilization, best 16mp sensor. The external, clip-on weather-sealed flash unit fits easily in a pocket.
  • Note that its more versatile travel lens with extended telephoto doesn’t have weather sealing:

Sony A6000 beats Sony RX10 and Panasonic FZ1000

  • Panasonic FZ1000 camera (2014, 29 oz with lens) f/2.8-4 lens 25-400mm equiv, 16x zoom. 1-inch-Type, 20mp sensor. Fast autofocus. Fully articulated LCD. Notes:
    • For the same weight but twice the price as FZ1000, you can upgrade to Sony A6000 with 18-200mm lens and APS-C sensor (having 3x bigger light-gathering area, but maybe not as sharp at long end of telephoto).
    • The Panasonic FZ1000’s brightest “equivalent F-stop” (f/7.7 to f/11 equiv from 25-400mm equiv) is not as bright as Sony’s E-mount 18-200mm f/3.5-6.3 lens (f/5.25 to f/9.45 equiv from 27-300mm equiv). [Definition: “equivalent F-stop” is the F-number on a full-frame-sensor camera which has the same hole diameter as the brightest F-stop of the camera lens being compared, and lets you compare control over shallowest depth of field.]
  • Sony Cyber-shot DSC-RX10 camera (2013, 29 oz) is more compact, with 8x zoom lens, f/2.8 maximum aperture (which is f/7.6 equivalent in terms of 35mm-size-sensor-systems throughout its 24-200mm equivalent).

Note that other midsize cameras with smaller sensors generally capture fuzzier images:

  • Olympus Stylus 1s (2015, 14 oz with 28-300mm equiv f/2.8 lens) is the world’s smallest camera having an 11x zoom on a 1/1.7″ type sensor. Its great electronic viewfinder is same as Olympus OM-D E-M5. Good 410-shot CIPA battery life.
  • The following cameras have a tiny 1/2.3-inch Type sensor which should beat cell phone quality, requires bright outdoor light, and is suitable for sharing images online or making small prints:
    • Panasonic Lumix DMC-FZ300 (2015, 24.4 oz, 12 mp, bright f/2.8 lens throughout 25-600mm equivalent, 24x zoom range, with OIS/Optical Image Stabilization, HD Video with sound, and raw file support) introduces weather sealing to keep out dust and moisture. Save money on earlier, non-sealed FZ200 or FZ70.
    • Nikon Coolpix P900 (2015, 32 oz, 16mp, 24–2000mm equivalent 83X zoom lens)
    • Olympus SP-100 camera (2014, 21 oz, 16mp, 50x zoom, 24-1200 equivalent, 1 cm close focus, nice 920k dot EVF): innovative On-Camera Dot Sight helps track distant birds or moving subjects.

Mirrorless Sony A6000 versus bulkier DSLR/mirror cameras

DSLR cameras are best for interchanging more lens choices and for shooting action (sports, birds) reliably with little shutter lag when using their optical viewfinder. “DSLR” means Digital Single Lens Reflex, where a mirror lets the viewfinder see through the lens. During a shot, the mirror briefly flips up to expose a digital sensor. However, almost all DSLR cameras of 2014 and earlier have excruciatingly slow autofocus (2-4 seconds) in Live View on the LCD − except for Canon 70D (2013, 27 oz, with Dual Pixel CMOS AF built into its 20mp sensor), and for Sony’s super fast Translucent Mirror Technology (a fixed mirror). Sony’s Translucent Mirror Technology speeds past the excruciatingly slow Live View autofocus of most rival DSLR designs:

However, the newer Sony A6000 with 16-50mm lens (2014, 12 oz body + 4 oz lens, 24mp) with Fast Hybrid Autofocus mirrorless camera puts similar 24mp sensor quality into half the body size, while focusing unusually fast with hybrid AF built into the sensor.

Why not NEX? Negatives with workarounds:

  1. Autofocus and Manual Focus:
    • NEX-6 introduces Hybrid AF, with autofocus nearly twice as quick as NEX-7.
    • Although its autofocus is generally fast, usually without much lag, a NEX isn’t as good for shooting fast action (like birds in flight) with tracking-autofocus (which I rarely use), where traditional DSLR cameras can focus faster than mirrorless ones.
    • For better autofocus in dim light using a NEX-7, turn OFF the AF Illuminator in MENU>SETUP, or else focus will likely be taken from the background within a big green indicator box filling most of the frame. (The AF Illuminator lamp is blocked by the fat 18-200mm lens and reportedly works poorly with other lenses.)
    • In low light conditions or at longer focal lengths, autofocus can stick (freeze), out-of-focus (also disabling DMF because focus fails to lock), requiring several seconds or minutes to recover. Fix by turning camera OFF then ON. The MF button (above) might help, but usually not. (Will NEX-6 hybrid autofocus fix this occasional problem?)
  2. Lens choices are few for Sony NEX E-mount, such as for telephoto:
    • Workaround:
      • For telephoto photography of small wildlife or birds at a distance, easily digitally crop a 24mp NEX-7, shot with the sharp, stabilized Sony 18-200mm f/3.5-6.3 OSS e-mount SEL18200 silver lens (18.5 oz, 27-300mm equiv)
        (Optical SteadyShot) zoom lens, optimally shot from f/5.6 to f/8. See lens recommendations above.
    • Nikon VR II and latest Canon IS lenses may beat Sony’s OSS for stabilizing hand-held shots by up to one stop of slower shutter speed (but NEX low-noise at high ISO can make up the difference).
    • Because they’re targeted for camera bodies with sensor-shift image stabilization, Sony A-mount (SAL) telephoto lenses lack optical stabilization (no OSS) and require a hefty A-mount adapter to work on a NEX camera.
      • A sharp Sony A-mount 70-400mm F4-5.6 G SSM II lens (2013, 53 oz, SAL-70400G2) or previous SAL-70400G can be adapted onto a NEX camera but lacks OSS, thereby limiting hand-held photography.
      • Sony A-mount to NEX E-Mount lens adapters include:
        • Sony LA-EA2 (7 oz, with translucent mirror for fast phase detection autofocus)
        • LA-EA1 (with Manual focus only, NO AUTOFOCUS).
    • For lightweight travel: Kenko 400mm fixed-f/8.0 Mirror Lens with T-mount Adapter for NEX (12+2.4 oz, Manual focus only).
  3. Important Playback tips: 
    • Auto Review responsiveness is now instant (fixed by NEX-7 firmware update v1.01). During Playback, the Center button nicely zooms to 100% pixel level to check sharpness and toggles back to the full image. When deleting a single image, don’t be alarmed by “Deleting Files” plural message — just the one image is deleted.
    • Each time you record (a Still image, MP4 video, or AVCHD video), the Playback screen shows only that file type, hiding other image types, but yikes, where? Toggling between file types requires obscure key sequences:
      • Press Down on the control wheel to display thumbnails of a given file type, press Left, press Center button, choose the type of file that you want to view, then finally press Center button again. Very annoying!
      • Or, press MENU > Playback > ViewMode > Folder View (Still) / Folder View (MP4) / AVCHD View.
      • Or, to Playback the thumbnails of the file type which were not last recorded, record a quick test file of the type you want then press Playback then Down (then delete the test shot).
    • As with Nikon cameras, Sony NEX-7 / NEX-6 have poorer menu/button structure than user-friendlier Canon and Panasonic cameras, thereby requiring extra time to learn the oddly-buried menus.
  4. Battery life:
  5. Huge files:
    • 24-megapixel files from a Sony NEX-7 are so huge (full of luscious detail) that you’ll need to spend more money upgrading to the latest, most powerful computer with lots of RAM and 64-bit Operating System (not 32-bit), in order to optimize memory-handling in important programs such as Adobe Lightroom software (and Adobe Photoshop). Each Fine JPEG file typically consumes 6 to 7 megabytes of card/disk space and requires downsizing before sending two or more per email.

CAMERA COMPARISON TABLE: NEX-6, NEX-7, Nikon D5000

For travel portability with top image quality, Sony NEX-6 and NEX-7 cameras easily beat my former Nikon D5000 DSLR dating from just 3 years previous (green box is best):

CAMERA FEATURES Sony Alpha NEX-6 (2012) mirrorless camera + Sony 16-50mm E-mount Retractable Zoom Lens (SELP1650) Sony Alpha NEX-7 camera (2011) mirrorless camera + Sony 18-200mm f/3.5-6.3 OSS e-mount SEL18200 silver lens (18.5 oz, 27-300mm equiv) Nikon D5000 (2009) DSLR camera + Nikkor 18-200mm VR II lens
Weight with battery + lens: 16 oz =
287 g / 12 oz body + 4 oz lens
33 oz =
14 oz body +19 oz lens
43 oz =
23 oz body + 20 oz lens
Camera body size: 120 x 67 x 43 mm (4.72 x 2.64 x 1.69″) 120 x 67 x 43 mm (4.72 x 2.64 x 1.69″) 127 x 104 x 80 mm (5 x 4.09 x 3.15″)
Megapixel (mp): 16 mp, 4912 x 3264 24 mp, 6000 x 4000 12 mp, 4288 x 2848
Sensor type: APS-C, CMOS. Focal length multiplier 1.5x. APS-C, CMOS. Focal length multiplier 1.5x. APS-C, CMOS. Focal length multiplier 1.5x.
Autofocus (AF) type: New, quicker Hybrid AF combines fast phase detection with contrast detection. Good AF in movies/video. Fairly fast contrast-detection AF. Good AF in movies/video. Fast phase-detection AF using viewfinder, but very slow 2-3 second AF in Live View on LCD. No AF in movies/video.
Drive speed frames per second (fps): Up to 10 fps “Speed Priority Continuous” with focus fixed at first shot, or 3.7 fps “Continuous Shooting” with autofocus on each shot. Up to 10 fps “Speed Priority Continuous” with focus fixed at first shot, or 3.7 fps “Continuous Shooting” with autofocus on each shot. Up to 4 fps Continuous with autofocus on each shot.
Close focus distance: 10 inches, 1:4.7 reproduction with 16-50mm lens. 10 inches, 1:3.7 reproduction with 18-200mm lens, albeit rather fuzzy. Read Macro topic at bottom of article. 20 inches, 1:4.5 reproduction with Nikon 18-200mm lens.
Battery life (CIPA): 360 shots on one charge 430 shots 510 shots
Viewfinder: 2,359,000 pixels electronic/EVF covers 100% with 1.09x magnification (0.73x equivalent in terms of full frame)! 2,359,000 pixels electronic/EVF covers 100% with 1.09x magnification (0.73x equiv)! optical pentamirror covers 95%; with 0.78x magnification (0.52x equivalent in terms of full frame), sadly just half the viewing area of NEX-7 or NEX-6!
LCD: 3 inches. 921,000 pixels. Xtra Fine LCD with Tilt Up 90° and Down 45° 3 inches. 921,000 pixels. Xtra Fine LCD with Tilt Up 90° and Down 45° 2.7 inches. 230,000 pixels, fully articulated, but hard to use in Live View due to painfully slow autofocus speed, 2-3 seconds.
Movies/video: MPEG-4, AVCHD, stereo microphone (mono speaker), good AF. 1920 x 1080 (60, 24 fps), 1440 x 1080 (30 fps), 640 x 480 (30 fps) MPEG-4, AVCHD, stereo microphone (mono speaker), good AF. 1920 x 1080 (60, 24 fps), 1440 x 1080 (30 fps), 640 x 480 (30 fps) Motion JPEG, mono sound recording, no autofocus in movies/video. 1280 x 720 (24 fps), 640 x 424 (24 fps), 320 x 216 (24 fps)
Built-in flash: 6 m range with 16-50mm Retractable Zoom. (New NEX-6 hot shoe requires Sony ADP-MAA Multi-Interface Shoe Adapter to mount Sony HVL-F20AM flash which fixes built-in flash’s shadow of 18-200mm lens from 18 to 50.) 6 m range (plus hot shoe for external flash: Sony HVL-F20AM flash fixes built-in flash’s shadow from 18 to 50mm on 18-200mm lens) 17 m (at ISO 100) (plus hot shoe for external flash)

More details about the great Sony 18-200 travel lens

Sony 18-200mm f/3.5-6.3 OSS e-mount SEL18200 silver lens (18.5 oz, 27-300mm equiv) lens is the most versatile travel lens for A6000 and NEX.

Sony Alpha NEX-7: 13 ounce mirrorless ILC body, 2012, 18-200mm OSS lens.

Sony Alpha NEX-7 camera with versatile Sony E-mount 18-200mm f3.5-6.3 OSS lens (33 ounces total) is the world’s best all-in-one travel system.

Add two essential scratch-resistant, multi-coated filters to this SEL-18200 lens:

  1. Tiffen 67mm Digital HT Ultra Clear filter to protect the lens. (Get clear, not UV, because all lenses already filter ultraviolet light.)
  2. Tiffen 67mm Digital HT Circular Polarizer filter to remove reflections from water, plants, and shiny surfaces, or to increase contrast between darkened, polarized blue sky and non-polarized clouds. Only mount a polarizer when it makes a desirable change to the scene somewhere within a rotation of 90 degrees when held up to your eye. Don’t leave the polarizer on the lens, as light passing through the extra glass is reduced by a stop or two. Also, a polarized view of the world is artificial.
Advantages of Sony 18-200mm OSS lens:
  • Sony SEL-18200 lens weighs only 18.5 oz for an 11x zoom (27-300mm equivalent focal length, in terms of 1.5x crop factor for APS-C).
  • Sony SEL-18200 lens includes Optical SteadyShot (OSS) – image stabilization to steady handheld shots by 2-4 stops slower shutter speed, important for on-the-go travel photography.
    • At 200mm, OSS stabilizes hand-held shots more sharply as slow as 1/60th of a second shutter speed (maybe not as good as latest Nikon VR II or Canon IS by up to one stop of shutter speed).
    • At 18mm, OSS stabilizes to about 1/15th second. (1/8th second is usually blurry, needing tripod.)
  • Surprisingly, when mounted on a 16mp NEX-5 or NEX-6, Sony’s 18-200mm OSS lens can be sharper than a prime Sony 24mm f/1.8 E-mount Carl Zeiss Sonnar (8 oz, SEL-24F18Z) lens from apertures f/8 to f/22 (but cannot reach the prime’s sharp f/2.8, has softer corners at f/4, and may soften contrast). But on a 24mp NEX-7, prime lenses have a clearer advantage.
    • For brighter shooting f/1.8-2.8, see “Prime lenses for Sony NEX” further above.
  • SMART TIPS for Sony 18-200mm OSS lens:
    • For sharpest results from 18-200mm, shoot in the sweet spot between f/5.6 to f/8 (easily set in Aperture Priority mode). Wider openings will soften the image and smaller openings such as f/16 cause unwanted diffraction. A Blur Index Test for SEL-18200 shows:
      • 18mm is sharpest at f/3.5-5.6
      • 35mm is sharpest at f/5.6
      • 50mm is sharpest at f/8
      • 70mm is sharpest at f/5.6-f/8
      • 100mm is sharpest at f/8-f/11
      • 200mm is sharpest at f/6.3-f/8.
      • Note: While f/16 can increase depth of field, f/16 resolves detail blurrier than most brighter apertures (wider openings, as above) on this 18-200mm lens (and most SLR lenses in general), due to diffraction through a smaller opening.
    • Easily correct its noticeable chromatic aberration and distortion automatically in Adobe Lightroom 4: Develop > New Preset > Lens Corrections (check box), and apply to every image upon Import. See how this works on a single image by using Develop > Lens Corrections > Profile > Enable Profile Corrections.
  • Simplify travel gear by carrying a single 18-200mm, 11x zoom lens. I prefer carrying a 33-ounce NEX-7 system with one lens instead of my previous 71-ounce Nikon two-lens system:
    • Sony SEL-18200 equals or beats the quality of the popular Nikon DX 18-200mm VR II lens.
    • From 18-200mm on a Sony NEX-7, image quality is up to 40% better than my previous Nikon D5000 camera with a Nikon 18-200mm VR II lens.
    • Delightfully, cropping shots from 24mp Sony NEX-7 using this Sony 18-200mm lens beats the resolution of my 26-oz Nikon 70-300mm F4.5-5.6G ED-IF AF-S VR Zoom lens from 70 to 250mm on a Nikon D5000 (but not from 250 to 300mm).
    • Upgrading to a Nikon D3200 camera (2012, 18 oz body) with 24mp sensor would clearly sharpen images from a Nikon 70-300mm lens beyond Sony’s 18-200mm lens, but swapping/juggling two big lenses hinders the joy of travel.
  • Sony’s “LE” version (black-colored SEL-18200LE) of its 18-200mm lens is okay for a NEX-6 but not for NEX-7.
  • Due to larger sensor (APS-C), mounting SEL-18200 on NEX-6 or NEX-7 beats using a Panasonic HD 14-140mm lens on Micro Four Thirds Sensor cameras (with same 2-pound system weight).
Disadvantages of Sony 18-200mm OSS lens:
  • Flash shadow: Sony 18-200mm lens (SEL18200) casts a shadow from 18 to 50mm using NEX-7 pop-up flash, fixed by mounting taller Sony HVL-F20AM flash on a NEX-7 (for which NEX-6 requires Sony ADP-MAA Multi-Interface Shoe Adapter due to a newly designed hot shoe).
  • Compromised optics: Perfectionists say the amazingly sharp 24mp sensor on a Sony NEX-7 demands lenses with optics better than an 18-200mm (11x) lens. See above: “Best lenses for Sony Alpha NEX cameras.”
    • In its defense, Sony 18-200mm (SEL-18200) lens quality equals or exceeds that of competitors’ 18-200mm or ≥11x lenses.
    • In zoom lenses with ranges smaller than 11x, most camera brands (Nikon, Canon, etc) offer better optical quality in various larger, heavier, or brighter lenses (“faster” f/2.8 maximum aperture). But a lens with zoom range less than 11x lacks flexibility of composition and requires frequent swapping with other lenses, thereby interfering with creative momentum and hindering travel convenience.
  • Poor close focus: SEL-18200 lens can focus as close as 12 inches from the tip of the lens for 1:3.7 reproduction onto the sensor, but I capture sharper macro with deeper depth of field using a high-quality compact camera such as Sony RX100 cameraor earlier Canon PowerShot S95:

Fields of White Avalanche Lilies bloom in late July along the trail in Spray Park, in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, USA. Two overlapping photos were stitched into a composite having greater depth of field. (© Tom Dempsey / PhotoSeek.com)

Right photo: White Avalanche Lilies bloom along Spray Park Trail, in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. In light bright enough to shoot at ISO 100 to 400, when zoomed to their widest angle of view, small-sensor cameras can focus closer while capturing much deeper depth of field than normal lenses on larger-sensor cameras. Focus stackingTo further increase depth of field, two overlapping photos were manually stitched into a composite, using Layers in Adobe Photoshop. In two separate shots, I focused on the flower at 5 cm (Macro mode) and on Mount Rainier at infinity, using a pocket-sized Canon PowerShot S95 camera lens set to 6mm (widest angle). 

Sony NEX firmware updates

Sony NEX-7 downloadable firmware update v1.01:

  1. Firmware 1.01 thankfully makes Auto Review instant and usable. Fixed problem: Auto Review was formerly unusable due to long delay/black screen before automatically displaying the shot image.
  2. Firmware 1.01 now lets a (buried) menu disable/enable the overly-prominent movie record button which is frequently pressed accidentally. A better fix is to glue a rubber washer/gasket over the movie button with hole in the middle to allow access while preventing bumping. (NEX-6 not only solves the problem better by relocating the movie button but also adds a more practical mode dial for changing P, A, S, M, SCN, etc.)

Unfortunately, NEX-7 doesn’t have the new Hybrid AF (for faster autofocus) found on NEX-6.

Your NEX-6 should have Sony E-mount lens firmware update v2 (dowloadable) to enable Hybrid AF when mounting these Sony lenses:

  • Sony 11x zoom 18-200mm f/3.5-6.3 (SEL-18200) lens
  • Sony Zeiss 24mm f/1.8 (SEL-24F18Z) prime lens (analyzed further above)
  • Sony standard zoom 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6 (SEL-1855) lens
  • Sony telephoto 55-210mm f/4.5-6.3 (SEL-55210) lens

Digital versus film for travel photography

Tom began using 35mm film (135 film cartridge) in 1978 and switched to digital cameras after 2004. This article explains why.

Digital versus Film for Travel Photography 2009” PDF document compares and reviews digital cameras versus film through 2009.

See my latest camera model recommendations.

Read the book “Light Travel: Photography on the Go” for the story of how a photographer’s switch from film to digital cameras inspired new creativity. Get more out of your digital camera using Tom Dempsey’s helpful tips.

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TOM’S CAMERA GEAR HISTORY 1978-2022

PhotoSeek creator Tom Dempsey reveals his favorite photographic gear.

For travel and nature photography, I look for portable, high-quality cameras on a moderate budget. By not being tied to any one brand, I regularly upgrade to the latest, best tool for the job. Former gear is easily sold locally via Craigslist.org, in-person for cash.

Equipment Summary

Since 2016, my 1-inch-sensor Sony RX10 IV and III cameras have preserved publishable image quality while radically extending zoom range to 25x. Back in 2012-2016, I enjoyed the 24-megapixel (MP) APS-C sensor in Sony A6300 and predecessor NEX-7 using Sony’s 18-200mm SteadyShot lens (27-300mm equivalent). Before that, Nikon gear served beautifully over 11 years, including Nikon D5000 APS-C with 18-200mm VR II lens. I refined my craft in 1978−97 with the classic Olympus OM-1N 35mm-film camera. But switching to digital Canon PowerShot cameras from 2003-07 rejuvenated my work with instant feedback and more freedom from the tripod. My online portfolio includes images from 1981-present. – Tom Dempsey

See my latest recommendations: BEST TRAVEL CAMERAS REVIEW.
Below, buy linked items at Amazon.com to support Tom’s work. 

Tom’s Camera History 1978-present

Since 1978 I have regularly updated my technology as follows (newest at top, oldest at bottom).

Current main camera: Sony Cyber-shot DSC-RX10 IV (37 oz; Tom’s usage 2018-present)
[slower-focusing previous version RX10 III used from May 2016−2017]

Sony RX10 IV or III camera

The versatile Sony RX10 IV or III dust-resistant camera has a superb 25x zoom 24-600mm equivalent f/2.4-4 lens.

Read my review of Sony RX10 IV/RX10M4, the ultimate travel camera. I acquired Sony Cyber-shot DSC-RX10 III (Amazon) when first released in May 2016 (read my review of version III). Upgrading to Sony RX10 IV (buy at Amazon) in 2018 bought faster autofocus, touchscreen AF, and reorganized menus. Both III and IV are just 37 ounces with battery and card (or 42 oz including the 5 ounces for strap, lens filter, cap & hood). Its “sealed body” keeps out dust and has a bright f/2.4-4 lens with vast 25x zoom, sharp throughout its remarkable 24-600mm equivalent range. I no longer need a pocket camera for improving close-focus shots, as RX10’s 1″-Type sensor has a depth of focus much deeper than APS-C sensor cameras for a given f-stop, enhancing details all the way from close flower shots, to distant bird feathers, to 600mm-equivalent telephoto. RX10 IV is the world’s most versatile camera for on-the-go photographers.

TIP: Despite Sony’s claim of “dust and moisture-resistant” body, DON’T EXPOSE YOUR RX10 IV or III CAMERA TO RAIN (even if immediately wiped off), as wind-driven droplets killed my RX10 III. Despite its weather sealing effectively keeping dust and condensation out of the lens throughout 16 months, one fateful rainstorm short-circuited its focus and LCD (sadly outside of its 1-year Sony Warranty). Rather than risking an estimated $656 repair (whose 90-day guarantee is voided by “liquid damage”), I bought a new European RX10 III (in York, England, to complete my UK photo shoot) which I soon sold on Craigslist in Seattle, after upgrading to the superior RX10 IV.

Sunset seen through gnarly pine trees at Mather Point Overlook, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA. (© Tom Dempsey)

Sunset seen through gnarly pine trees at Mather Point Overlook, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA. (Shot on Sony RX10 IV at 24mm equivalent © 2018 by Tom Dempsey)

Indoor event photography / night photography camera: Sony Alpha A6300 (18 oz with kit lens, or 25 oz with sharper 16-70mm F4 lens; Tom’s usage from April 2016−present)

Introduced in April 2016, the best value camera for capturing indoor events or action with fast autofocus is my Sony Alpha A6300 (2016, 14 oz body + 4 oz 24-75mm equiv zoom) (buy at Amazon with 16-50mm f/3.5-5.6 OSS kit lens). To try to beat my RX10M3, I sold A6300’s inferior kit lens and upgraded to a pricier, sharper Sony Vario-Tessar T* E-mount 16-70mm F4 ZA OSS 4x-zoom lens (11 oz, SEL1670Z, 2013), which slightly beats Sony SELP18105G and SEL-18200 from 18-70mm. But the sharp, versatile Sony RX10 IV has nearly antiquated my A6300 (which is only 0-5% sharper).

Sony’s A6300 (read my review) demands the sharpest E-mount lenses to leverage its APS-C sensor, in order to rival the marvelous optics of Sony RX10 IV or III. For indoor events using the A6300, my older Sony SEL18200 lens struggled to keep up with RX10 III or IV outside of a 30-60mm equivalent sweet spot. Improved autofocus on RX10 IV now means I tend to leave the A6300 at home to reduce luggage when flying abroad, except on professional shoots where I need a top camera for backup, indoor events and sharper night photos.

Tom’s pocketsize backup and backpacking camera: (11 oz; usage from Aug 2018−present)

Bowling Ball Beach, Schooner Gulch State Park, south of Point Arena, Mendocino County, California, USA. © 2012 Tom Dempsey)

Bowling Ball Beach, Schooner Gulch State Park, south of Point Arena, Mendocino County, California, USA. Pacific Ocean waves have weathered coastal bluffs (steeply tilted beds of Miocene Galloway Formation, Cenozoic Era mudstone) to expose spherical sandstone concretions resting in lanes. Concretions form because minerals of like composition tend to precipitate around a common center. (Panorama stitched from 2 overlapping photos shot on Sony NEX-7 with Sony E-Mount 18-200mm f3.5-6.3 OSS lens. © 2012 Tom Dempsey)

Tom’s smartphone camera (usage from 2015-present)

  • Tom used 2019-present: Samsung Galaxy Note9 with 512 GB storage, handy stylus (7.1 oz, plus screen protector and case): improves the camera and extends battery. Waterproof rating IP68 (withstands dust, dirt, sand, and submersion up to a depth of 1.5m underwater for up to thirty minutes).
  • Tom used 2015-2018: Samsung Galaxy Note5 with stylus (6 oz, plus screen protector and case)

Tom’s underwater camera: Olympus TG-4 (8.7 oz, 25-100mm equiv; usage from 2017−present)

Tom’s Printer (usage from 2022-present): Canon PIXMA TR8620 Multi-function Printer

Best value printers for photographers as of 2021:
  • Good value 8.5-inch-wide multi-function printer for photographers: Canon PIXMA TR8620 Printer, with five ink colors including pigmented black, accepting paper from small media up to Legal 8.5×14-inches. (The great little TR8620 prints onto Canon Pro Luster Paper just as vibrantly as did Tom’s earlier printer, Epson Stylus Photo 2200 onto Epson Premium Luster.) Adding photo blue ink in the following model achieves slightly better color accuracy, but it’s hardly perceptible and costs more for ink usage: Canon PIXMA TS8320 combines a pigment-based black ink with dye-based cyan, magenta, yellow, “photo black” and photo blue inks.
  • Excellent 13-inch-wide printer for photographers: Canon imagePROGRAF PRO-300 printer, with ten pigmented inks.

Tom’s previous printer (usage from 2005-2021): Epson Stylus Photo 2200

  • The 2200 printer and its inks are no longer sold. The 2200 made impressive prints (equal to or better than the typical chemical photographic process) up to 13 x 44 inches, rated at 80-year longevity on special Epson papers (when mounted behind glass).
  • Features: 7-color Ultrachrome inks, high quality ink jet printer. Combination of Photo Black (or Matte Black) and Light Black improves neutral and Black & White tones, and extends the dynamic range of prints. [I upgraded to the 2200 from the earlier but excellent Epson Stylus Photo 1270, for which ink costs about 25% less.]
  • Epson later upgraded as follows:
    • The 8-color Epson Stylus Photo 2400 prints on paper up to 13 x 44 inches and improves gray scale and dynamic range for blacks & shadows (essential for Black & White prints), using long lasting K3 inks, superior to the Epson 2200 or 1270/1280.
    • The 8-color Epson Stylus Photo 3800 Printer (released 2007) prints on paper 17×22 inches using long lasting K3 inks. The 3800 takes up a surprisingly small footprint on your office desktop.

Tom’s latest computer and software (A, B, C, D, E)

A. Adobe Lightroom Classic for Windows (Tom’s usage from 2007−present)

I highly recommend Adobe Creative Cloud Photography plan (Lightroom Classic + Photoshop) which elegantly organizes images and speeds editing! Lightroom easily and automatically exports image files to attractive web pages, or to files of any size, such as for e-mail or Microsoft PowerPoint presentations. I exclusively use the computer desktop version called “Lightroom Classic,” which has more powerful features than the cloud version called “Lightroom.”

  • Major improvement in 2017, CC Lightroom version 7.1: the Auto adjust button now works so well that I may use it every time, for huge savings on editing time! Apply it upon Import as a “Develop Settings > User Preset > (created previously with ‘Auto Settings’ checked)”. This new Sensei powered “Auto” uses artificial intelligence to adjust the most important Develop settings for Exposure, Contrast, Highlights, Shadows, Whites, Blacks, Vibrance, and Saturation.
  • If you have photos that were previously edited in a much older version of Lightroom, be sure to select them all and use “Develop module > Settings > Update to Current Process” to make available the latest editing capabilities for Auto, Shadows, Highlights, Adjustment Brush, etc.
  • New in 2016, Lightroom CC’s Boundary Warp feature is essential for building panoramas quickly, and Dehaze (in Adjustment Brush and Develop>Effects tab) provides a big help beyond Clarity to reveal details behind hazy skies, glare, or other conditions. (Not supported in LR version 6.)
  • Lightroom bug sorting videos: To properly sort videos by Capture Date, put them in folders separate from still files, or else the movies will appear in unexpected order. Reported workaround: Select all the videos; then Metadata > Edit Capture Time; then click OK (without needing to edit each one).
  • In April 2015, Lightroom version 6 added Photo Merge to Panorama and to HDR, with raw file input and high-quality output to Adobe Digital Negative DNG files.
    • A good FREE option for stitching panoramas from multiple images is Image Composite Editor (ICE) released in 2015 from Microsoft Research Computational Photography Group (faster and sharper than using Adobe Photoshop CS5).
  • Save money on Adobe products using your discount for academic/student/teacher, if applicable. (Also, in 2012, Adobe competitively cut in half the retail price of Lightroom.)
  • Lightroom helped me edit and organize 2-3 times more per week compared to Canon ZoomBrowser, or to Adobe Photoshop with Bridge.
  • Lightroom smartly stores its non-destructive editing commands & labels in a powerful database (and in .XMP sidecar files for raw), compatible with JPG, TIF, and most camera raw files.
    • To protect your edits and metadata changes against the rare event of a damaged Lightroom catalog, be sure to “Automatically write changes into XMP” (which unfortunately isn’t the default) set under Lightroom’s Edit menu > Catalog Settings > Metadata.
    • But backing up DNG file edits must be done manually, with the command “Update DNG Preview and Metadata” under Metadata menu. DNG is advantageously compressed 20% smaller than camera raw, but using sidecar+raw instead may be faster and more secure against file corruption. The writing time for a whole DNG file takes much longer than a quick write to a tiny sidecar XMP file. So long as you “Build Previews 1:1” at Import time as I do, Lightroom preview speeds should be similar or better using raw+sidecar compared to DNG. Synchronizing a folder of thousands of images should be much quicker with raw+sidecar than with DNG. 
    • I don’t see an advantage in converting old or importing new raw shots to DNG. As of 2015, Adobe Lightroom version 6 still handles my oldest raw files from Canon Powershot G5 camera of 2003 and Sony NEX 7 raw (2012-15).
    • To simplify your workflow and printing, use sRGB color space outside of Lightroom (Edit>Preferences>External Editing tab), such as when launching Photoshop. Costco makes great 40-year prints on Fuji Crystal Archive Paper using default sRGB color space at 300 dpi. Most monitors and cameras use sRGB color space as a default practical standard.
  • A great Lightroom upgrade from 1.4 to 2.0 added graduated filters, localized editing brushes, and a quicker interface to Adobe Photoshop such as for Photomerge (stitching panoramas, now included in Lightroom version 6.x). If you buy a new camera that captures raw files, check if the latest Lightroom update has added support for it. (For example, Lightroom Version 1.1 introduced RAW support for Nikon D40X camera, 1.4 added Nikon D60, 2.4 added Nikon D5000.)
  • Adobe Lightroom ties you to the expense of updates, or ongoing CC subscription, required for raw file compatibility for future cameras that you may purchase. If your Lightroom CC subscription expires, you can still view, organize and export (but not Develop) images.
FREE editor alternatives:
  • Polarr.co edits very well, especially the $20 Pro version with important Brush Mask and batch processing. But Polarr loads only 50 images at a time, and requires external organizing software. Polarr image size must be ≤40 megapixels (so you must edit the entire set of images before using a stitcher like FREE Image Composite Editor to merge a large panorama).
  • FastStone Image Viewer 3.6 Freeware, www.faststone.org. Fast and capable, especially if you use raw files. Downloads, views, edits and exports still images, including most camera raw files. FastStone does not view or download movies or sound files.
  • Canon Zoombrowser is FREE with purchase of Canon cameras. Handily downloads, views, edits and exports Canon still images, movies and recorded sound files. (Simpler than FastStone Viewer.)
  • Apple Photos (or earlier iPhoto) is not bad, but each edit creates a new JPEG file. In 2014, Apple ceased development of its Aperture and iPhoto apps, replacing both with “Photos for macOS.” Version 3 and later of both Apple Aperture and Adobe Lightroom helpfully cataloged movie files.
  • Google Photos: good across multiple platforms but requires internet connection. 16mp max per photo. 15 gb free storage on Google Drive (then $2/month per 100 gb up to 30 TB as of 2017).
A Japanese maple turns orange in autumn. The Seattle Japanese Garden was completed in 1960 within UW's Washington Park Arboretum. Address: 1075 Lake Washington Blvd E, Seattle, Washington 98112, USA. (© 2013 Tom Dempsey)

A Japanese maple turns orange in autumn. The Seattle Japanese Garden was completed in 1960 within UW’s Washington Park Arboretum, Seattle, Washington, USA. (Shot at 33mm equivalent on Sony NEX-7 with Sony E-Mount 18-200mm f3.5-6.3 OSS lens © Tom Dempsey)

B. Adobe Photoshop

While Adobe Lightroom handles 95% of my editing, the remaining 5% of my very best images, printing, and book production still require Photoshop. Most people don’t need Photoshop, since Adobe Lightroom covers most advanced photo editing needs.

  • Adobe Photoshop: As of Spring 2013, Photoshop version CS6 and later is now rented by the month or paid yearly to run the CC version, which can now expire if you don’t revalidate every 6 months through Adobe Creative Cloud via internet connection. (In contrast, Adobe Lightroom is cheaper and never expires, although raw file support for new cameras requires regular upgrades.)
  • Upgrade history: Adobe upgraded to CS5.5 in 2011, to CS5 in Fall 2009, to CS4 in Fall 2008. Photoshop version CS5 worked well for me. CS5 through CS3 have support for 16-bit Adjustment Layers and greatly improved Photomerge, to seamlessly stitch 16-bit panoramas from multiple 16-bit images (now antiquated by Lightroom 6.x and CC with Photomerge).
C. Microsoft Powerpoint 2016 for Windows, via Office 365 Home subscription

makes flexible photo shows combining images, music, videos, labels & charts with nice cross-fades between frames for display on a computer or digital projector. Subscribing to Microsoft Office 365 Home includes PowerPoint, Word, Excel, and Outlook; supports 5 PCs or Macs, 5 tablets, and 5 phones; has unlimited customer service; and is cheaper than buying standalone copies separately for PC and laptop.

Alternative show software: Proshow Producer has flexible output formats at all resolutions.

D. Tom’s laptop shows use Microsoft PowerPoint on a PROJECTOR or HD TV
  • 60-inch Samsung digital HD TV monitor with LED Backlight (Tom’s usage 2012 – present): As of October 2012, our living room shows are upgraded with a spectacular 60-inch Samsung digital TV with LED Backlight technology, 1920 x 1080 pixels, displaying photographs with excellent tonal impact and realism. Impressive full-array backlight LED LCD television technology with local dimming has noticeably deeper blacks and greater dynamic range than edge-lit LED LCD and is worth the slightly thicker box. Mount on the wall to save floor space. LED LCD televisions use half the power of bulky old CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) models. Connect the large digital television via HDMI socket to a laptop computer. Darkening the room is no longer necessary because LED televisions make presentations brighter than projectors (such as Canon Realis SX60 or SX50).
  • Best projector under $1000: BenQ HT2050 DLP HD 1080p Projector (at Amazon.com) – 3D Home Theater Projector with All-Glass Cinema Grade Lens. Or older, slightly cheaper BenQ HT1075 is almost as good.

My older Canon Realis SX50 digital projector (Tom’s usage December 2005 – present) displays impressive multimedia presentations using Microsoft Powerpoint run on a notebook computer, dynamically superior to a slide film projector. The SX50 projects a spectacular movie theater experience, especially with a 6-speaker Surround Sound system. The Canon Realis SX50 projector features SXGA+ (1400 by 1050 pixels); great 1000 to 1 contrast; 2000 actual lumens; true 720p HD broadcast for movies. $4000 in December 2005, then price dropped to $3500 in October 2006. It has keystone correction, a great dynamic range (from highlights to shadows), and sharper focus than slide film projectors such as the Kodak Carousel 4600. The SX50 is well optimized to show images in default sRGB mode, as captured by digital cameras.

On my trusty old Kodak Carousel 4600 film projector, the contrast ratio is more limited, requiring a darker room than Canon SX50; and you must wait for the curved film in each slide mount to warm up and pop into focus, which still annoyingly leaves the edges or center out of focus, even with the compensating lens and autofocus. In contrast, digital projectors focus crisply & brightly across the entire image!

E. Tom’s computer hardware
Tom’s current Personal Computer system (from 2017−present):
Tom’s laptop computer (from 2017−present):
  • HP Spectre x360 – 15t Touch Laptop (Product #X6W04AV):
    I love its elegant profile, great keyboard & handy touchscreen!
    15.6″ 3840×2160 pixels diagonal UHD UWVA eDP BrightView WLED-backlit screen.
     Intel Core i7-7500U 2.7-3.5 GHz, 4 MB cache, 2 cores,
    plus 16 GBNVIDIA GeForce 940MX (2GB GDDR5 dedicated) video graphics.
    16 GB DDR4-2133 SDRAM. 1 TB Solid State Drive (SSD).
    64-bit Windows 10 Pro operating system. .
Recommended best value PC specifications for Adobe Lightroom & PhotoShop 2012-2013
  • Use a 64-bit Windows or Apple operating system (not 32-bit).
  • Recommended processor: quad-core 3.5 GHz Intel i7-3770K Ivy Bridge (or i5-3570K saves money)
  • Recommended RAM: 12 to 16 gigabytes of Random Access Memory
  • Recommended graphics: GeForce GTX570 (note that pricier Quadro 2000 isn’t necessarily better)
  • Recommended hard drive: 2 terabytes, 7200 RPM is good enough (or Solid State Drive/SSD, or 10,000 RPM if affordable)
  • Recommended: Solid State Drive (SSD): 256 gb for PhotoShop swap files
  • Recommended: external portable Blu-Ray player, writer/DVD recorder (made optional due to large cheap 16gb memory cards, USB memory sticks, or cloud storage) can be used on both laptop & PC.
  • Recommended: USB 3.0 ports
Computer speed tips for older systems 2007-2012
  • Install Photoshop, Lightroom program and database onto a RAM drive or SSD for faster speed of loading and running.
  • Photoshop sped up when I added a very fast internal hard drive (10,000 rpm) to host the swap file of Adobe Photoshop CS3. Adobe Lightroom versions 1.3 and 1.4 also sped up when “Lightroom Catalog.lrcat” image database was moved onto the fast drive.
    • Despite having 4 gigabytes RAM memory on your computer, Photoshop CS3 only takes advantage of one gigabyte of memory before memory starts slowly swapping to disk. Workaround: Upgrade to faster CS4, a 64 bit application.
  • My computer 2009-2012 was a Dell XPS 420 Workstation (2.4 GHz Quad-Core processor) with 4 gigabytes RAM memory, running Windows Vista operating system, using the 24 inch Dell 2407WFP-HC Ultrasharp widescreen Flat Panel LCD monitor, 1920 x 1200 pixels, and 1000:1 Contrast Ratio. Main image storage was on a 2 terabyte RAID 0 internal hard-drive pair backed up to 1.5 or 2 TB external USB drives. To write to CD/DVDs on my Dell Workstation and Laptop, I had to use the provided Roxio program, instead of Windows XP or Vista (which poorly handle CD/DVD disk writing).
  • For external backup or storage, get an external 1 or 2 Terabyte (TB) drive with eSATA or USB 3.0 connection. eSATA is as fast as your internal hard drive connection, much faster than Firewire or USB 2.0. New computers after 2011 may come with fast USB 3.0.
  • On your laptop, for more reliable mouse control on your touchpad, disable the annoying Tap feature, which often mistakes your mouse finger movements for a click or double click. Disable Tap in Windows XP or Vista > Control Panel > Mouse > Touchpad. Instead of the Tap feature, rely on the Left and Right buttons.
A solo hiker walks atop the Pulpit Rock (Prekestolen) 1959 feet above a car ferry on Lysefjord, Forsand municipality, Rogaland county, Ryfylke traditional district, Norway, Europe. (© Tom Dempsey / PhotoSeek.com)

Tom Dempsey scanned this image from 35mm film that he shot in 1981 on an Olympus OM-1N camera: A solo hiker walks atop the Pulpit Rock (Prekestolen) 1959 feet above a car ferry on Lysefjord, Forsand municipality, Rogaland county, Ryfylke traditional district, Norway, Europe. Published in Wilderness Travel Catalog of Adventures 1998, 1996, 1988. Winner of “Honorable Mention, Photo Travel Division” in Photographic Society of America (PSA) Inter-Club Slide Competition May 1988. Published 2009 on a commercial web site in Amsterdam. Published in “Light Travel: Photography on the Go” book by Tom Dempsey 2009, 2010.

Recommended film-to-digital scanners

Compare the value of your many hours spent scanning versus using a service such as Scancafe, which offers reasonably quality, okay resolution for our old 35mm film camera slide quality, sufficient for communicating the colors and memories. But Scancafe severely crops all images to the smaller rectangle fitting within the rounded 4 corners of each slide. This may be a critical problem for your own slides, as it affects many cherished compositions. Maybe ask them not to crop? In my own scanning of selected favorites, I usually take extra time to patch or clone-fill the rounded black corners in Photoshop, thereby retaining the large scanned border areas, preserving the full composition.

  1. Pacific Image PowerSlide X: Batch scan 50 slides, at up to 10,000 dpi, excellent dynamic range of 4.2, with critically important infrared dust and scratch removal called Magic Touch (a form of ICE). Be sure to immediately start scanning masses of slides to see if you encounter problems. 50 scanned at a time sounds great, though if it jams, try fewer slides at a time. Allow time for preview with manual scan exposure optimization, physical, handling and Photoshop touch up. The scanner outputs good TIF files at 16 bits per channel of R,G,B. It doesn’t capture raw format, so exposure may need manual tweaks to avoid clipping highlights, unless its excellent 4.2 dynamic range sufficiently covers this. My 35mm film shots seem to have at most about 4000dpi worth of detail in them, at which point the film grain and flaws in lens sharpness are very visible! So 10,000 dpi may be overkill, and would take unnecessary extra scanning minutes per slide, so maybe 5000 dpi is sufficient.
  2. Plustek OpticFilm 8200i SE film scanner (2014).
  3. Epson Perfection V700 Photo Scanner with Digital ICE™ technology for dust spot removal, scans 12 slides at once in 8×10 inch area. 6400 dpi. Optical density 4.0 Dmax. Compatible with Windows XP and various Macintosh versions.
  4. Earlier excellent scanner: Epson Perfection 4990 Photo Scanner with Digital ICE™: This flatbed scans up to 8×10 inches, many images at once automatically. 4800 x 9600 dpi resolution, 48-bit color depth, and 4.0 Dmax (dynamic range). Compatible up to Windows XP, and various Macintosh versions.

Tom’s Scanner: Konica Minolta DiMAGE Scan Dual IV (usage from 2006−present)

My discontinued Konica Minolta DiMAGE Scan Dual IV (used 2006present):

  • scans much better than my former Nikon LS-2000 (below), requiring little extra Photoshop adjustment [except for laborious manual dust removal required on 12/16-bit mode scans — where a workaround is to use Photoshop’s Filter>Dust & Scratches feature, but that often reduces image detail].
  • If you will be making lots of scans, get a different scanner that supports automatic dust removal using ICE or a similar infrared technology. 
  • Features: $240 in 2006; 3200dpi, or about 4284 by 2892 pixels from a scanned slide. Dynamic range higher than film, so it captures all shadow & highlight detail. This 3200 dpi resolution sufficiently captures all the clarity in 99% of my images taken on a tripod with consumer-quality SLR lenses. Photoshop can effectively enlarge using a bicubic algorithm. (I feel that 4000 dpi on a different scanner wouldn’t get any more useful information out of 99% of my film slide images). Universal USB connection. Unattended batch scan of 4 slides, each with custom settings. Requires Windows XP (which I run on an old Notebook computer). This Minolta scanner doesn’t work with Windows Vista.

My old Nikon LS-2000 Super Coolscan scanner (Tom’s usage from 2000 – 2005):

  • 2700 ppi, makes ~2400×3600 pixels from slides, dynamic range=3.6, $1330 plus $430 stack loader; SCSI interface; can automatically batch scan 30 slides, all at the same setting.
  • Using Nikon LS-2000 scanner, I have made prints 28×42 inches at 240dpi, which look good at a viewing distance of about 36 inches or further, scanned from Fujichrome Velvia slides (digitally enlarged from 2400×3600 pixels in two stages in Photoshop).
  • By 2003, this Nikon LS-2000 workhorse was antiquated by cheaper, better scanners, but instead of upgrading to the Nikon LS-4000, I bought new digital cameras, which offer more flexibility, higher quality, much faster work flow, and scan subjects directly. The SCSI connection on the Nikon LS-2000 was incompatible with my Dell 9300 Notebook computer. I sold the LS-2000 scanner with stack loader (for $405 on e-Bay), and purchased the above superior Minolta scanner for only $240.

Tom’s Tripod: Slik “Sprint Pro II GM” with built-in quick change plate (usage from 2005−present)

  • Slik Sprint Pro II GM Tripod with Ballhead
  • Weighs only 33 ounces (or 30 ounces without the center column) and is great for travel, superior to other travel tripods that I’ve evaluated (including Velbon MAXi343E, Manfrotto, or even Gitzo tripods costing three times more). To handle the weight of an SLR with lens weighing heavier than a pound, some photographers may prefer a more substantial change plate. Carry a penny or quarter to tightly screw lock the quick release plate securely to camera. Note that I rarely use a tripod lately due to great image stabilization technology.
  • Features: The stiff magnesium alloy legs are sufficiently stable for cameras up to 3 or 4 pounds (especially if you don’t extend the bottom leg section; or if you hang on extra weight) and have very fast locking levers (of sturdy plastic). This tripod rises to eye level (64 inches), collapses to 18 inches (or 16 inches if you remove the quick-release ball head). The metal ball head swings 90 degrees each way, to two vertical positions, and turns freely around, all tightened with one effective lever. Legs can optionally splay out independently in 3 locking positions down to 6.4 inches off the ground. For macro, the center column can be reversed underneath for great shooting flexibility at ground level, and unscrews into a short section (saving 3.3 ounces). (The convertible spike leg tips which I never used are now just rubber in the Pro II, saving a little weight and collecting less soil.) The earlier model “Pro” which I used for 2005-2008 was 3 ounces heavier than the Pro II after adding the superior quick change plate: Slik “Sprint Pro GM” Tripod ($90), with Manfrotto 3299 Quick Change Plate Adapter ($35, quick release), 36 ounces total. Stiff aluminum legs. Leg tips convert from spike (outdoor) to rubber (indoor use) with a simple lockable twist.

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The above products surpass the following older equipment which I no longer use:

Pocketable backup camera: Panasonic Lumix DSC-ZS100 (11 oz; Tom’s usage from 2016−July 2018)
Pocketable backup camera: Sony RX100 version III  (10 oz; Tom’s usage from 2014−2016)
  • Sony RX100 (read my review) version III pops up an electronic viewfinder (OLED SVGA 1.44M dots), widens its lens view to 24mm equiv (brightest aperture f/1.8), zooms to a sharper and brighter 70mm f/2.8 telephoto, tilts its 3″ LCD to a full 180 degrees and adds a Nuetral Density (ND) filter, all as substantial upgrades from version II. Sony RX100 (price at Amazon) has an impressive 1-inch-Type sensor (20mp), unusually fast 0.15 sec autofocus, and a sharp LCD (1,228,800 dots). To better grasp its slippery body, add a Sony AG-R2 attachment grip.
Sony Alpha NEX-7 with Sony E-Mount 18-200mm lens (33 oz; Tom’s usage July 2012−April 2016)
A mounted horse wrangler leads a spare horse down the dusty Park Butte Trail, Mount Baker Wilderness, Washington.

A cowboy guides horses on dusty Park Butte Trail, Mount Baker Wilderness, Washington. (Shot on a Sony Alpha NEX-7 camera at 140mm using Sony E-Mount 18-200mm f3.5-6.3 OSS lens. © Tom Dempsey)

Sony DSC-RX100 version I  (8.5 oz; used by Tom in 2013-14, is now my wife’s main camera, replacing Canon G9):
Tom’s Personal Computer system (from December 2012−2016):
  • HP Envy Phoenix H9SE-W8 Desktop PC with: 16 gb SDRAM DDR3 1600 MHz, Intel Core i7-3770K CPU 3.5 GHz, 3 TB SATA hard drive 7200 RPM plus ExpressCache HP 16GB Disk Cache SSD (for faster startup), 1.5 GB Nvidia GeForce GTX 660 graphics card, 600 watt power supply, and 64-bit Windows 8 operating system.
  • LCD monitor: 24 inch Dell 2407WFP-HC Ultrasharp widescreen Flat Panel, 1920 x 1200 pixels, and 1000:1 Contrast Ratio.
Canon PowerShot G9 (13 oz) (used by Carol Dempsey July 2009−2014)
Above the Arctic Circle, ascend a slippery steep trail to Reinebringen for spectacular views of Reine village, highway E10, and sharply glaciated peaks surrounding Reinefjord, on Moskenesøya (the Moskenes Island), Lofoten archipelago, Nordland county, Norway. Panorama stitched from 3 overlapping photos. (© Carol Dempsey / PhotoSeek.com)

Stitched from 3 overlapping images shot by Carol on a Canon PowerShot G9 camera: Above the Arctic Circle, ascend a slippery steep trail to Reinebringen for spectacular views of Reine village and sharply glaciated peaks surrounding Reinefjord, on Moskenesøya (Moskenes Island), Lofoten archipelago, Nordland county, Norway. (© 2011 Carol Dempsey / PhotoSeek.com)

  • Canon PowerShot G9 was my wife’s main camera. 35-210mm equivalent lens, image stabilized.
  • Disadvantages: Grainy at ISO 400 and too noisy at ISO 800+. Workaround: A Canon PowerShot G11 gives two stops ISO improvement, flip out LCD, 28-140mm lens, and DIGIC IV.
  • The newer, smaller Sony DSC-RX100 camera effectively beats G9 real resolution from 35-150mm (by cropping RX100’s 20mp images where needed for digital telephoto) and has two stops lower noise at ISO 800+. But G9 is sharper for macro (albeit more distorted) and at telephoto 150-210mm equiv.
  • G9 is a good 13-ounce camera with quality similar to an 8-megapixel DSLR of 2009 at ISO 80.
    • Comparisons: The 28-140mm Canon PowerShot G10 has similar sharpness, making good 5×7 prints at ISO 400, with DIGIC III processor. A Canon A650 IS saves money with similar JPEG quality and adds flip-out LCD but no raw file support.
Nikon D5000 DSLR with Nikkor 18-200mm VR II Lens (45 oz) (Tom used July 2009 − June 2012)

The Nikon D5000 plus Nikon AF-S DX 18-200mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR II Zoom is one of the best photo systems of 2009 for active travelers, sufficiently lightweight to carry all day in a chest bag.

  • 23 ounce body with battery & strap. Mount with 22-ounce Nikon DX 18-200mm VR II Zoom (with cap and hood) with up to 4 stops image-stabilization (up to 8 times slower hand-held shutter speed).
  • 12 megapixels 4288 by 2848 pixels, makes good prints to 23 by 30 inches or larger. Excellent quality to ISO 1600, and ISO 3200 is usable for smaller prints. Image quality similar to higher priced Nikon D300. CCD sensor size is Nikon DX format 23.6 x 15.8 mm.
  • 2.7 inch tilt and swivel LCD (new, unusual for a DSLR) with rudimentary live view which focuses very slowly, as with all DLSRs through 2010 — focusing through viewfinder is much faster. Captures movies with monophonic sound.
  • I protected the camera in a Clik Elite Large SLR Chest Pack This chest pack fits SLR camera with a lens up to 5.5 inches. Test the fit thoroughly within the store’s return period. The straps may work better for someone with larger-than-average shoulders. The upper shoulder pads are comfy, but the wide back pocket built into the back straps sorely rubbed into my left shoulder blade. I fixed by cutting away the lower back straps 2 inches below the V shape and resewing the two nicely padded upper shoulder straps to the lower part of a tested older harness.

Nikon 18-200mm AF-S ED VR II lens:

  • 20 ounces / 560 grams without cap and hood, new in 2006 (with version I of VR Vibration Reduction).
  • 18-200mm focal length 11x zoom is perfect for travel (with 27-300mm equivalent field of view in terms of 35mm film). Minimizing lens swapping saves time, reduces dust spots on sensor, and promotes creativity.
  • Hand hold shots in up to 4-stops dimmer light using Vibration Reduction (VR). Reduced tripod setup cuts shooting time in half, increasing creativity. Using the image-stabilized lens combined with good image quality on the Nikon D5000 up to ISO 1600 (even ISO 3200 is useful now) improves hand-held photography by about 1-2 stops compared to Nikon D60 (2008) and 6-8 f/stops compared to Canon Powershot Pro1 (2004) which shot noisy images above ISO 100.
  • Focuses to 18 inches (0.5 meters) throughout the zoom range. Largest magnification is at 200mm telephoto closeup: 3.5 inches wide (or an area of 93 x 62 mm).
  • Filters for Nikkor 18-200mm VR lens:
    • Hoya 72mm UV filter both sides coated, in purple box; for important lens protection. “Both sides coated” is cheaper than MultiCoated (Hoya SMC), and should be fine for 95% of your shooting. To avoid flare risk, take off filter if shooting into sun or indoors under spot lights. (My last filter saved my lens by breaking the fall of the lens, camera & tripod which tipped over onto concrete in Luray Caverns!)
    • 72mm B+W brand Circular Polarizing filter. Only polarize to remove reflections or haze. In the sky, maximum polarization is a 90 degree angle from the sun, but be careful not to
      over darken blue sky. (A cheaper polarizer may throw off your white balance.)
    • Tiffen P ND .6 Graduated Nuetral Density Filter for balancing bright sky with foreground subjects. For speed, I hold this “neutral density graduated filter” up to the lens manually without a holder.
  • How to optimize lens quality: By being so versatile, this Nikkor 18-200mm VR lens does suffer from some quality compromises, so I sharpen results from 70mm to 200mm by shooting from f/8 to f/11.
    • At 135mm, its fuzziest zoom setting, use f/11 to f/16 for sharper results.
    • When shooting flash with this 3.9″ lens, shoot above 24mm and remove the lens hood, or else a lens shadow will appear in the bottom of the image. Or mount a high flash on the hotshoe such as Nikon Speedlight SB-600 or 700.
    • With VR set ON, I can sharply hand hold shots as slow as 1/8 to 1/30th second for respectively 18mm to 200mm.
    • Caveats for the Nikkor VR 18-200mm lens: Architectural photographers (who need straight lines) won’t like the barrel distortion at 18mm wideangle (hard to correct for this lens), or the pincushion distortion between 35mm and 70mm (easily correctable using Adobe Photoshop>Filter>Distort>Lens Correction). Macro photographers should get a sharper dedicated macro lens or use a compact camera which focuses closely with great depth of field.
  • Alternative lens: Tamron Di II VC AF 18-270mm F/3.5-6.3 LD Aspherical (IF) MACRO, new in Fall 2008, zooms impressively to 15x, while stabilizing hand-held sharpness close to the image quality of 18-200mm 11x lenses from brands Nikon VR and Canon IS. Tamron 18-270mm costs less than the Nikon 18-200mm lens. But I didn’t like Tamron’s long slippery lens creep when you point the camera up or down, and focus appeared inconsistent in my tests versus the Nikon 18-200mm on a tripod in indoor light. Tamron’s 15x doesn’t help much versus Nikon’s 11x because you can slightly crop Nikon’s sharper 200mm shots and print equally large. Nikon’s focus ring has instant manual focus override, whereas you must
    inconveniently flip a switch on the Tamron.

70-300mm F4.5-5.6G ED-IF AF-S VR Zoom Nikkor lens:

  • 26 ounces; 5.6″ length; 4.9 foot minimum focus; also compatible with full frame Nikon D3 DSLR.
  • For sports, wildlife and birder photographers. According to testing by www.photozone.de, the Nikon 70-300mm captures about 5 to 20% sharper resolution than the Nikon 18-200mm VR.
  • This lens proved its worth on our wildlife trip to Galapagos Islands and Ecuador in 2009.
  • Unfortunately this 70-300mm lens cannot focus closer than 4.9 feet. For travel, consider carrying the Nikkor 70-300mm VR lens together with kit lens Nikkor 18-55mm 1:3.5-5.6G DX AF-S VR (with good closest macro area 63 x 42 mm), or with the 18-200mm VR II lens (93 x 62mm closest macro area).

Accessories:

  • Hoodskins (800-818-3946): Protect your LCD from scratches by applying this clear plastic film, and preserve the resale value of your camera. Hoodskins Model HSK-4 for 3.5- to 4-inch LCD screens can be cut with scissors to fit smaller LCDs.
  • Wireless remote control transmitter for shutter release: Nikon ML-L3 ($18) is important for any tripod photography (city lights, fireworks).
Fields of White Avalanche Lilies bloom in late July along the trail in Spray Park, in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, USA. (© Tom Dempsey)

Fields of White Avalanche Lilies bloom in late July along the trail in Spray Park, in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, USA. (Shot on Canon PowerShot S95 at 10 megapixels with 28mm equivalent lens, f/6.3, 1/1600 second, ISO 200 © 2012 by Tom Dempsey)

Canon PowerShot S95 (8 oz) (Tom used Feb 2011 to Feb 2013)
  • Canon PowerShot S95 is half the size and half as sharp as a Canon PowerShot G9. Fits handily in a shirt pocket for people shots. 10 megapixels. 28-105mm equivalent lens, f/2-4.9. 1/1.7″ type sensor (7.44 x 5.58 mm). Good close-focus flower shots with deep depth of field, better than the closest focus of Nikon 18-200mm VR II lens on Nikon D5000.
  • Upgrade: Canon PowerShot S110 camera, or superior Sony DSC-RX100 camera (twice as sharp with much faster focus).
Nikon D60 & D40X DSLR with Nikkor 18-200mm VR Lens (40 oz total) (Tom used D60 2008−09, D40X 2007−08)
Galapagos Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis, subspecies: urinator) at Suaraz Point, Española (Hood) Island, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, South America. (© Tom Dempsey / Photoseek.com)

Photographed using a Nikon D60 DSLR using 18-200mm lens (© 2009 Tom Dempsey): A Galapagos Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis, subspecies: urinator) preens feathers at Suaraz Point, a wet landing on Española (Hood) Island, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, South America. Published in “Light Travel: Photography on the Go” book by Tom Dempsey 2009, 2010.

  • The Nikon D60 or D40X plus all-in-one 18-200mm VR lens is a great system for active travelers, sufficiently lightweight to carry all day in my chest bag.
    • D60 or D40X camera body weighs 18 ounces (including battery & strap).
    • The Nikkor AF-S DX VR 18-200mm 3.5-5.6G IF-ED lens weighs 22 ounces with cap and hood (released in 2006, adopted by me in 2008). Its wonderful new VR (Vibration Reduction) feature stabilizes the sharpness of hand-held shots by up to 4 stops of shutter speed − remarkably unchaining travel photographers from the constraints of a tripod!
      • This D60 or D40X with 18-200mm lens system is comparable to Canon Rebel XSi with Canon 18-200mm IS.
    • The D60 thankfully introduces a good sensor dust-removal system, plus VR kit lenses. (The previous Nikon D40X model, which I used from May 2007 to August 2008, required tedious dust spot corrections, but nowhere near as bad as slide film).
      • The D60 introduces Active D-Lighting to attractively lighten shadow detail in JPEG shots, but Active D-Lighting doesn’t affect my raw shots — RAW gives superior editing leeway, so I generally avoid shooting JPEG (now that memory cards are getting cheaper than in the near past, allowing plenty of room for the larger RAW files).
    • D60/D40X sensor captures 10 megapixels = 3872 x 2592 pixels, making good prints to 23 by 30 inches or larger. Excellent quality to ISO 800, and ISO 1600 is usable for smaller prints. Same image quality as the higher priced Nikon D200. CCD sensor size is 23.6 x 15.8 mm (six times the light gathering area of the sensor in my earlier compact Canon Pro1).
    • The Nikon D60/D40X has a bright 2.5 inch LCD and shoots a generous 300 to 420 images per charge (using a Digital Concepts 1200 mAh battery, at 40 to 70 degrees F, using the LCD briefly on most shots; most shots using VR and 10% using flash). The batteries last 2.5 times longer than Canon Pro1 batteries and weigh an ounce less per battery. Long battery life is important for trekking away from electricity such as in Nepal, where six batteries lasted for two weeks shooting 2800 images without recharging on the D40X.
  • Adobe Lightroom version 1.1 introduced support for the Nikon D40X camera, and version 1.4 supported Nikon D60.
  • 2008-09: my wife uses the shirt-pocket sized Canon SD700 IS (below), which serves as my backup that adds movies & sound recording.
Canon PowerShot SD700 IS Digital ELPH, ultra-subcompact digital camera (7 oz; Tom used October 2006−2007)
  • This amazingly tiny and lightweight camera can be carried in your pocket, takes still shots with publication quality up to 12 by 16 inches, and serves as a main camera for my wife and backup camera for me.
  • Features: 6 megapixels (2816 x 2112 pixels). Image-stabilized zoom lens 5.8-23.2 mm, f/2.8-5.5 (or 35-140 mm lens in 35mm-film-camera terms); 0.79-inch macro focus. Movies can be 15, 30 or 60 frames per second, with dynamic exposure and digital zoom as you shoot, which is better than the Pro1. Great DIGIC II processor. We bought the optional housing for shooting underwater.
  • Disadvantages: No raw file mode. It has good exposure +/- compensation, but cannot set or view the F/stop aperture or shutter speed (except shutter speed thankfully displays live when the camera shake warning also displays).
  • The SD700 was succeeded by the SD850. Excellent alternatives to the SD700 IS: Sony Cyber-shot DSC-N2; or Canon SD800 IS ELPH. Slightly larger, higher quality alternatives in 2007: Canon PowerShot A710 IS, or PowerShot G7. Upgrades released in 2008: G9, G10.
Canon PowerShot Pro1 compact digital camera (25 oz; Tom used August 2004 − March 2007)
An orange and green leaf rests on polygons of orange and gray lichen in Denali State Park, Alaska, USA. (Copyright Tom Dempsey / PhotoSeek.com)

Photographed using a compact Canon PowerShot Pro1 camera (© 2006 Tom Dempsey): An orange and green leaf rests on polygons of orange and gray lichen in Denali State Park, Alaska, USA. Published in “Light Travel: Photography on the Go” by Tom Dempsey 2009, 2010.

  • For its time, the Canon PowerShot Pro1 was a great all-in-one camera for traveling.
  • Features: 8 megapixels = 3264 x 2448, makes good prints to 23 by 30 inches. Professional “L series” 7.2-50.8 mm zoom lens, with fast f/2.4-3.5 widest aperture, or 28-200 mm, in terms of 35mm-wide-film cameras (horizontal angle of view from 65.5 degrees wide, to 10.3 degrees at telephoto). Close macro focus to 1 inch (using 5 megapixel Super Macro, f/3.0 at 90 mm). The electronic viewfinder EVF is great when the LCD is hard to read in bright sunlight. High resolution Movies. JPEG images require little Photoshop touch up; and the raw format preserves superior image quality. Battery life is half of the earlier Canon G5, so I carry a few more batteries. CCD sensor 2/3 inch type (8.8 x 6.6 mm).
  • Using the Pro1’s wide angle lens at maximum f/8, everything is in focus from 1.4 feet to infinity when you focus at 2.7 feet (the “hyperfocal point”; all objects at distances from half of the hyperfocal distance out to infinity will be acceptably sharp). Using the Pro1’s 50.8 mm telephoto at f/8, if you focus 132 feet away, then everything is in focus from 66 feet to infinity; and focusing the same telephoto at 20 feet, you get 6 feet of total depth of field from front to back.
  • April 2005 upgrade: Canon Pro1 Firmware version 1.0.1.0 (free on Canon Support Web Site, released December 2004) doubles the shutter release speed, reducing shutter lag from about 0.6 to 0.3 seconds.
  • But in 2007, the discontinued Canon Pro1 was outclassed by the more capable Fujifilm FinePix S9100, which is the same weight but physically larger.
Canon PowerShot SD500 Digital ELPH ultra-subcompact digital camera (7 oz; Tom used May 2005 − Sept 2006)
  • This tiny and lightweight camera can be carried in a pocket, takes still shots with publication quality up to 12 by 16 inches, and served as a main camera for my wife and backup camera for me for 1.5 years.
  • Features: 7 megapixels = 3072 x 2304 pixels. Zoom lens 7.7-23.1 mm, f/2.8-7.1 Wide, f/4.9-13.0 Telephoto (or 37-111 mm lens in 35mm-film-camera terms); 2-inch macro focus. Movies can be 15, 30 or 60 frames per second, and now with dynamic exposure and digital zoom as you shoot, which is better than my Pro1. Great DIGIC II processor.
  • Drawbacks: No raw file mode. Has good exposure +/- compensation, but cannot set or view the F-stop aperture or shutter speed.
  • To maximize depth of field, set the SD500 mode dial to Manual and toggle the Infinity button (until you see the mountain symbol). Using the SD500’s 7.7 mm (37 mm equivalent) wide angle lens at maximum f/7.1, everything is in focus from 2.3 feet to infinity when you focus at 4.6 feet (the “hyperfocal point”). At the 23.1 mm (111 mm equivalent) telephoto maximum f/13, everything is in focus from 11.5 feet to infinity when you focus at 23 feet.
  • We bought the SD500 for $450 in May 2006, and sold it on e-Bay 1.5 years later. In October 2006, we upgraded to the well-reviewed Canon PowerShot SD700 IS ELPH above (which introduces excellent image stabilization in a longer zoom 35-140 mm f/2.8-5.5 lens, which helps compensate for the lower resolution of 6 megapixels; and shutter-button lag is now reduced to a very fast 0.1 to 0.3 seconds).
Film versus digital photography 2004-2009; and how to ensure digital longevity

FILM VERSUS DIGITAL (read my 2009 article).

While film can fade, high-quality digital image file formats should last perfectly into the future so long as you copy backups onto the latest storage media which are readable by up-to-date software.

To avoid unrecoverable exposure problems and posterization, always record 12-bit (or 14-bit) camera raw format files at shooting time to create digital archive files that have 16 (or 64) times the tonal editing headroom compared to JPEG (which has only 8 bits per pixel per red, green, or blue color channel).

If your editing software ever threatens to evolve beyond compatibility with older raw files (which are proprietary to each camera), first convert to a modern “universal” raw format such as Adobe Digital Negative, DNG files, to ensure future compatibility. As of 2015, Adobe Lightroom version 6 still handles my oldest raw files from Canon Powershot G5 camera of 2003, and I haven’t yet seen the need to convert old files to DNG. For secure backup of my Lightroom edits, I like “Automatically write changes into XMP” (Lightroom > Edit > Catalog Settings > Metadata), in case the Lightroom catalog ever becomes corrupted and must be restored by re-importing raw image files + sidecar XMP files.

Canon PowerShot G5 compact digital camera (19 oz) + telephoto lens (9 oz) (Tom used 2003−2004)
A Common Wombat (Vombatus ursinus) at Bonorong Wildlife Park, Briggs Road, Brighton, Tasmania, Australia. (© Tom Dempsey / PhotoSeek.com)

A flip-out-and-twist LCD allowed me to lower my Canon PowerShot G5 camera into the enclosure to frame at wombat level, with permission at Bonorong Wildlife Park, Tasmania, Australia. (© Tom Dempsey) Published on Australian geocaching coin 2010; displayed in support of Wilder Foundation 2009, 2010; and exhibited at Oceanario de Lisboa, Portugal 2007. Published in “Light Travel: Photography on the Go” book by Tom Dempsey 2009, 2010.

The Canon PowerShot G5 convinced me to stop shooting film! The G5 was half the size and weight of my earlier Nikon N70 SLR outfit (below), yet had a brighter lens, and rivaled the quality I got from scanning film using the Nikon LS-2000 film scanner (which was later superseded by better scanners). G5 Features: 5 megapixels = 2592 x 1944, 35-140 mm zoom (equivalent), f/2.0-3.0, + fixed 245 mm or 1.75x attachment lens. Its great flip-out-and-twist LCD became a critical feature that I never knew I needed before, for macro, wildlife, and people shots.

Fujichrome Velvia 100F 35mm color slide film (Tom used 2004)

is more realistic and not quite as vivid as Velvia 50, but has twice the speed, and could have become my new mainstay film, except for the superiority of a digital camera for my travel and nature photography.

Kodak Ektachrome 100VS 35mm color slide film (Tom used 2001−03)

I was very happy with this vivid film when I need one stop faster than Fuji Velvia. (I disliked the flat colors of Fuji Provia 100 or 100F.)

Epson Stylus Photo 1270 Printer (Tom used 2000−04)

made wonderful prints up to 12×44 inches, rated at 25-year longevity on special Epson papers (when mounted behind glass). 6-color high quality ink jet printer. My home prints on the Epson 1270 now exceeded the quality of professional chemical silver-based prints. (The 1270’s successor was the similar Model 1280; and after 2004, nicer 7-color printers became available such as the excellent Epson Stylus Photo 2200 above, and 4000.)

Fujichrome Velvia 50 ASA 35mm color slide film (Tom used 1999−2004)

This classic film became my new mainstay, until I switched to a digital camera in 2004.

Silhouettes of four photographers at sunrise on Mount Nemrut, in the Republic of Turkey. (© 1999 Tom Dempsey / Photoseek.com)

Silhouettes of four photographers at sunrise on Mount Nemrut, in the Republic of Turkey. (© 1999 Tom Dempsey) Published in “Light Travel: Photography on the Go” book by Tom Dempsey 2009, 2010.

Nikon N70 SLR 35mm-film camera + 2 lenses = 54 ounces (Tom used 1998−2004)

Doubled light gathering power and gained a nice built-in flash, at the cost of slightly more bulk and weight. Fully automatic + manual. In April 1999, I upgraded lenses to: Sigma 28-105 mm f/2.8-4 Aspherical Zoom; and Sigma 70-210 mm f/3.5-4.5 APO Telephoto Zoom Macro (2:1 magnification). Nikon N70 was released in 1996.

Gitzo “Weekend Compact Performance” tripod (Tom used 1998−2004)

2.9 pounds with lightweight ballhead, plus Kirk quick release plate. When the camera is not attached, the Kirk plate can lose its release knob unless you screw it all the way down, which partly defeats the quick release purpose. The screw-locking legs on this Gitzo model are very slow to set up and take down, and the small ball head constantly came unscrewed (a design flaw). I upgraded to a lighter, faster & cheaper yet equally sturdy tripod further above.

Fujichrome 100 Sensia I & II film (Tom used 1992−1998)

became my new mainstay: fast & sharp with adequate color.

Film experiment 1988-2000: I occasionally used Kodachrome 200 film

but I was usually unhappy with the grainy results.

Film experiment 1986-92: I occasionally used Kodachrome 64 film

which is faster than Kodachrome 25, but color is not as vivid.

Film classic 1978-92: The great Kodachrome 25 film

was my longtime mainstay film with good sharp results. Even though it is one of the longest-lasting films, some of my Kodachrome 25 slide images are fading after 25 years. Ektachrome fades quicker than Kodachrome.

Classic camera: Olympus OM-1N SLR 35mm-film camera + 2 lenses = 48 ounces (Tom used 1978−97)
From Männlichen Gipfel, see Eiger, Mönch, and Jungfrau in the Berner Oberland, Switzerland, the Alps, Europe.

I photographed this popular image on a Olympus OM-1N SLR 35mm-film camera (© 1981 Tom Dempsey): From Männlichen Gipfel see the peaks of Eiger (Ogre 13,026 feet on left), Mönch (Monk), and Jungfrau (Virgin 13,600 feet on right) in the Berner Oberland, Switzerland, the Alps, Europe. Published multiple times and even featured in a Swiss movie by Meret Nora Burger.

Trusty and rugged. Fully manual camera. Attachable flash. I started with fixed 50 mm and 135 mm Zuiko lenses, then upgraded to a Tamron 28-70 mm f/4 zoom, and a Sigma UC II 70-210mm, f/4-5.6, 1:4.7 macro, telephoto zoom lens. From 1978 to 1997, I used lightweight SLIK 500G and other tripods for travel. The OM-1 can take 8-hour night sky star-trail photographs, which can require special battery supplements on modern battery-intensive cameras, such as the Nikon N70 film camera, and especially digital cameras.

Terminology and metric conversions

  • oz = ounces. Above camera weights in ounces (oz) include battery and memory card.
  • g = grams. Multiple ounces by 28.35 to get grams.
  • sec = second.
  • mm = millimeters. A centimeter (cm) equals 10 millimeters. Multiply centimeters (cm) by 0.3937 to get inches.
  • ILC = Interchangeable Lens Compact = “midsize mirrorless camera” term used above
  • DSLR = Digital Single Lens Reflex = a traditional camera where an optical viewfinder uses a mirror to see through the interchangeable lens.
  • EVF = Electronic Viewfinder.
  • LCD = Liquid Crystal Display.
    • OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) beats an LCD in dynamic range from darkest to brightest and consumes less power.
  • LPH or LPPH = resolvable lines per picture height = the best empirical measure of real resolution of a camera’s sensor for a given lens (independent of pixel pitch or megapixel count). A camera with higher LPH can make sharper large prints. Look up cameras on dpreview.com to find absolute vertical LPH judged by photographing a PIMA/ISO 12233 camera resolution test chart under standardized lighting conditions. Note which lens, settings, and camera body was used in each test, and compare with others within the same web site.
  • equivalent lens = To compare lenses on cameras having different sensor sizes, equiv or equivalent lens refers to what would be the lens focal length (measured in mm or millimeters) that would give the same angle of view on a “full frame35mm-size sensor (or 35mm film camera, using 135 film cartridge).
    • Compared lenses are “equivalent” only in terms of angle of view. (To determine sharpness or quality, read lens reviews which analyze at 100% pixel views.)
    • Crop factor” = how many times smaller is the diagonal measurement of a small sensor than a “full frame” 35-mm size sensor. For example, the 1.5x crop factor for Nikon DX format (APS-C size sensor) makes a lens labeled 18-200mm to be equivalent in angle of view to a 27-300mm focal length lens used on a 35mm film camera. The 2x crop factor for Micro Four Thirds sensors makes a lens labeled 14-140mm to be equivalent in angle of view to a 28-280mm lens used on a 35mm film camera.
  • Superzoom lenses
    • In 2013, superzoom often refers to lenses of about 15x zoom range or larger. Steady quality improvements in the resolving power of sensors has made possible superzoom cameras in ever smaller sizes. As superzoom range increases, laws of physics require lenses to focus upon smaller sensors (light detectors) or else to increase lens size. For a given level (most recent year) of technological advancement, a camera with physically larger sensor (bigger light detecting area) should capture better quality for a given zoom lens range.
    • 10x zoom” = zoom lens telephoto divided by wide angle focal length. For example, a 14-140mm focal length zoom has a 10x zoom range (140 divided by 14). An 18-200mm zoom has an 11x zoom range (200 divided by 18).
  • equivalent” F-stop = refers to the F-stop (F-number) on a full-frame-sensor camera which has the same hole diameter as the F-stop of the camera lens being compared. The concept of “equivalent” F-stop lets you compare capabilities for creating shallow depth of field on cameras with different-size sensors. Smaller-sensor cameras use shorter focal lengths for the same field of view, so at a given F-stop they have a smaller physical aperture size, meaning more depth of field (with less blur in front of and behind the focused subject). Formula: F Number (or Relative Aperture) = actual focal length of lens divided by diameter of the entrance pupil.

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BEST 2022 TRAVEL CAMERAS reviewed

Top recommended travel cameras (smartphone, pocketable, midsize) as of June 2022.

Tom Dempsey recommends the following portable camera gear for on-the-go photographers:

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Sony RX10 IV camera

The versatile Sony RX10 IV dust-resistant camera sports a superb 25x zoom 24-600mm equivalent f/2.4-4 lens.

MORE DETAILS: TOP TRAVEL CAMERAS, Parts A-E

PART A. Top SMARTPHONE CAMERAS

zoom poorly but compensate for tiny cameras via vast computational power, with superior AUTO HDR, good close focus, and incredible ease-of-use with instant photo sharing. I recommend these:

An “unlocked” phone lets you pick a lower-priced wireless service provider and/or install a cheap foreign SIM in each country visited (as I did in Japan and UK). To save money on your USA wireless carrier, consider Consumer Cellular (external link), which accesses AT&T’s complete USA-only network most cheaply while providing top customer support. Get Consumer Cellular’s “all-in-one SIM” from Target stores or via mail, then insert into an unlocked GSM phone and activate with their help. For international roaming capability when away from Wi-fi, I now use Consumer Cellular’s T-Mobile service. With my wife on Consumer Cellular’s AT&T and me on their T-Mobile service, together we broaden our USA coverage.

Off by default, be sure to turn ON your phone’s “Wi-Fi Calling” Setting, which costs nothing extra. Wi-Fi Calls in the USA will be clearer, if cell reception is poor where Wi-Fi is strong. When you are outside of USA, Wi-Fi Calls eliminate roaming charges when calling US phone numbers. While you are roaming, calls made to non-USA numbers are charged per-minute rates by both the foreign and home mobile network operators. When abroad, only use Wi-Fi service to access internet data; turn OFF “Data Roaming” to avoid unexpectedly large bills.

PART B. World’s best POCKETABLE TRAVEL CAMERA


Although expensive, the best & brightest pocketable 8x-zoom camera is now the

The sweet spot for a sharp, portable zoom is now found in cameras which use a 1-inch-Type sensor size (explained in my Sensors article), as in Sony RX100M7.

Other recommended pocketable cameras

  1. Panasonic Lumix DSC-ZS100 (2016, 11 oz, 25-250mm equivalent lens f/2.8-5.9). Read Tom’s ZS100 review.
  2. Panasonic Lumix DC-ZS200 (2018, 12 oz, 24-360mm equivalent lens f/3.3-6.4) outguns all pocket-size 1″-sensor rivals with a versatile 15x zoom, but sibling ZS100 is sharper and brighter through 10x.
  3. Sony Cyber-shot DSC-RX100 versions IV, III, II, or I: within its limited 3x zoom is sharper and brighter than that sub-range of Panasonic’s 10x-zoom ZS100. Save money with used or earlier III, II or I versions — read Tom’s Sony RX100 III review.
  4. Best value pocketable superzoom: Panasonic Lumix DMC-ZS70 (2017, 11.4 oz, 24–720mm equiv 30x zoom, 20mp, Electronic ViewFinder/EVF). Or save on older ZS60. For the price of a newer ZS80, you should instead get the larger-sensor ZS100 above.

Weather resistant pocketable cameras

  • For hiking in the rain, try a waterproof smartphone. My Samsung Galaxy Note9 worked great in New Zealand rainforests (or use similar S9 Plus).
    • While a cheap CaliCase Universal Waterproof Case can take unsealed smartphones snorkeling underwater, beware that 2 out of 4 copies I received noticeably softened camera resolution due to a milky stain on the already-blurry plastic window.
  • waterproof, shockproof, dust-resistant Olympus Tough TG-6 waterproof camera (2019, 9 oz, 25-100mm, f/2.0-4.9 lens) can potentially beat contemporary smartphone image quality if you shoot and edit raw format, as I did when rafting the Grand Canyon using the earlier TG-4.

TIP: As a workaround for sluggish autofocus (AF) in cheaper compact cameras: prefocus (lock) on a contrasty edge of the subject by half pressing and holding the shutter button, then the subsequent full press will be instant, ≤ 0.15 second. But half-press autofocus lock doesn’t work in continuous focus or action modes. Don’t let an inferior camera frustrate your capture of action, people, pets, or sports. For surer action shots, consider a newer model with hybrid AF such as pocket-size Panasonic ZS100, Sony RX100, or midsize RX10 or Panasonic FZ1000, or an interchangeable-lens camera. 

PART C. World’s best MIDSIZE TRAVEL CAMERA

Smaller, cheaper midsize cameras with 1″-Type sensor

  • Best midsize camera for the money: Panasonic FZ1000 (2014, 29 oz with fast-focusing 16x zoom lens 25-400mm equiv, bright f/2.8-4, 20mp, 1″-Type BSI sensor) rivals the zoom quality of APS-C-sensor and DSLR systems of this weight, for a cheaper price. The FZ1000 version II (2019, 28.5 oz) is worth the upgrade price for new lower-noise sensor and sharper LCD screen & EVF.
  • Panasonic FZ2500 (December 2016, 33 oz, 20x zoom 24-480mm f/2.8–4.5, 20mp): costs 25% less, adds a fully articulated LCD with touchscreen, increases viewfinder magnification (EVF 0.74x versus 0.7x), and has better menus and improves video specs (ND filter, Cine/UHD 4K) in comparison to Sony RX10 III. But FZ2500’s lens collects a half stop less light, slightly lowering image quality; its telephoto doesn’t reach long enough for birders; and its CIPA battery life of 350 shots is shorter than RX10III’s 420 shots. (FZ2500 is FZ2000 in some markets.)

Larger APS-C sensor, midsize camera for dim light, indoor action, events

Tiny 1/2.3″-Type sensor extends zoom range for midsize cameras

Tiny, noisy 1/2.3″-Type sensors are usually best leveraged with smartphones’ superior processing power, but mostly limited to wider angles of view. When you attach a larger-diameter lens to collect more light, these 1/2.3″-Type sensors can become useful to extend zoom range in the following midsize cameras:

  • Cheapest: Panasonic Lumix FZ300 (2015, 24.4 oz, 12 mp, bright f/2.8 lens 25-600mm equivalent, 24x zoom range, weather sealed).
  • Nikon COOLPIX P950 (2020, 35 oz, 24–2000mm equivalent 83x zoom lens f/2.8–6.5, 1/2.3″ sensor, 16mp). Fully articulated LCD. 290 shots per charge. P950 adds a flash hot shoe and can record RAW files (whereas older P900 only captured JPEGs).
  • Compare with bulkier Nikon COOLPIX P1000 (2018, 50 oz, 24–3000mm equivalent 125x zoom lens f/2.8–8.0 on 1/2.3″ sensor, 16mp) for dedicated birders and wildlife specialists. The P950 and P1000 are best intended for zooming above 1000mm equivalent, whereas various rival cameras would better cover 24-1000mm. For example, superior processing of modern smartphones generally beats P950 and P1000 at wide angles (24-50mm equivalent). A 1″-sensor Sony RX10M4 shot at 600mm can be digitally cropped by 2x to outshine the P950 and P1000 up to about 1200mm equivalent.

GENERAL TIPS: Upgrade your camera every 2 or 3 years as I do to get better real resolution, lower noise at higher ISO speeds ( ≥ 800), and quicker autofocus. Since 2009, most cameras take sharper hand-held shots using optical image stabilization (branded as Nikon VR, Canon IS, Panasonic OIS, Sigma OS, Tamron VC, Sony OSS). Today’s cameras capture much better highlight and shadow detail, by using better sensors plus automatic HDR (high dynamic range) imaging and other optimizations for JPEG files. On advanced models, I always edit raw format images to recover several stops of highlight and shadow detail which would be lost with JPEG.

What makes an ideal travel camera?

The “best” travel camera is the one you want to carry everywhere. The best Light Travel cameras (as chosen above) should minimize bulk and weight while maximizing sensor dimensions (read article), zoom range, lens diameter, battery life ( ≥ 350 shots), and ISO “sensitivity” (for lower noise in dim light). An optimally sharp zoom lens should change the angle of view by 8x to 25x to rapidly frame divergent subjects, without the extra bulk or annoyance of swapping lenses. Lenses should autofocus fast (with hybrid AF minimizing shutter lag ≤ 0.3 sec), optically stabilize images, and focus closely (for macro). Travel cameras should pop up a built-in flash and also flip out (articulate/hinge/swivel) a high-resolution display screen to jump-start your creative macro, movie, and candid shooting at arm’s length. OLED displays usually outshine LCD. Sunny-day reflections often obscure display-screen visibility − but to save bulk, most pocket cameras sadly lack a viewfinder. A camera with a brilliant electronic viewfinder (preferably an EVF with ≥ 1 million dots) gives better feedback on the final digital image than a non-digital optical viewfinder

Related camera history: Tom Dempsey’s travel cameras adopted from 1978 until now.

PART D. Best-value DSLR-STYLE TRAVEL CAMERA

features an optical viewfinder using a legacy mirror box, for good price value:

For the best wide angle lenses for DSLRs, read Tom’s wide angle lenses article,

For the best telephoto lenses for DSLRs, read Tom’s article: “BEST TELEPHOTO ZOOM LENS 300mm+” to seriously magnify wildlife, birds, and sports with optical image stabilization.

Recommended close focus, macro enlargement prime lenses for DSLR cameras 

Instead of carrying one of the above prime macro lenses for a DSLR camera, consider adding a pocketable camera or smartphone which can focus very closely at wide angle with deep depth of field, and can serve as a backup for your larger/main camera. A pocketable Panasonic ZS100 captures good close-focus shots optimally sharp at 45mm equivalent (after the Macro/Flower symbol button is pressed).

In fact, I gave up lens-swapping in 2016. Instead, I carry the Swiss-Army-Knife of cameras: the 25x zoom Sony RX10 IV, which captures excellent macro at 400-600mm, sharpest at f/5.6 (read Tom’s RX10M4 review).

Historical DSLR comparison: Nikon version Canon

Nikon D3300 (released in 2014) offers more for your money (at a lighter travel weight) than Canon EOS Rebel cameras of 2014 and earlier. Also, the earlier Nikon D3200 beats Canon Rebel DSLR cameras of 2012. The best mirrorless designs can pack more quality into a smaller box, but DSLR cameras offer more specialty lenses, with a design legacy inherited from the 35mm film era, where an optical viewfinder’s mirror box adds bulk.

PART E. Best FULL-FRAME-SENSOR TRAVEL CAMERA

Full-frame-sensor cameras excel at indoor, night, and very-large-print photography, but require bulkier lenses, often with limited zoom ranges. Full-frame sensors can resolve more detail with less noise in dim light at high ISO 3200+ when compared to APS-C and smaller sensors of a given year. The lightest-weight, best-price-value, full frame-sensor camera is Sony Alpha A7 Mirrorless camera (17 oz body, 24mp, 2013), or Sony Alpha A7 II (2014, 21 oz), or newer Sony A7R II. The A7 series requires Sony FE (full frame) E-mount lenses.

The A7R (2014, 16.4 oz) captures 36mp. In contrast, A7S (2015, 17 oz) has 12mp optimized with large photosites and more sensitive autofocus great for low-light videographers, but its stills require ISO 12,800+ to beat A7R’s 36mp image quality. Instead of having an optical viewfinder like a DSLR, the A7, A7II, A7R, and A7S have a great electronic viewfinder (EVF) with 2.4 million dots (XGA). The 3-inch tilting LCD has 1.23 million dots (except 921,000 on A7S). New Hybrid AF builds phase-detection autofocus into the sensor, capturing 5 fps with continuous autofocus. With contrast-detection autofocus only, A7S shoots 5 fps and A7R shoots 4 fps. Weatherproof bodies.

Nikon D750 DSLR camera (26.5 oz body, 24mp, 2014) is excellent. 6.5 fps continuous shooting. Tilting 3.2″ RGBW LCD screen has 1.23 million dots. Long 1230 shots CIPA battery life. Uses Full frame Nikon F Mount/FX Format lenses.

Nikon D810 DSLR camera (big 35 oz body, 36mp, 2014) camera demands highest quality full frame Nikon F Mount/FX format lenses and excites professional studio and landscape photographers with its very high resolution (3200 lph raw for D800 and better in D810) rivaling the quality of medium format film for making big fine-art prints. In dim light at dusk, dawn, or indoors, capture low-noise images at high ISOs 6400 to 12,800 — even ISO 25,600 can look good in small prints. Capture unprecedented dynamic range in raw files from bright to dark. Unfortunately it has very slow autofocus using LCD Live View (fixed by using mirrorless Sony A7). Frames per second at full res FX mode has increased to 5 fps for sports (versus 4 fps in D800, or 6 fps if DX frame size).

Nikon D610 DSLR camera (30 oz body, 24 mp, 2013) costs less than D800. Captures less noise than Sony NEX-7 by 2-3 stops of ISO when set at ≥3200. Raw resolution up to 2800 lph.

Tom recommends these accessories:

  1. Spider Holster – Spider X Backpacker Kit – “Self Locking, quick draw access to your camera on the go from any belt or backpack strap!”
  2. Good value 8.5-inch-wide multi-function printer for photographers: Canon PIXMA TR8620 Printer, with five ink colors including pigmented black, accepting paper from small media up to Legal 8.5×14-inches. (The great little TR8620 prints onto Pro Luster Paper just as vibrantly as Tom’s earlier Epson Stylus Photo 2200, for which inks are no longer sold). Adding photo blue ink in the following model achieves slightly better color accuracy, but it’s hardly perceptible and costs more for ink usage: Canon PIXMA TS8320 combines a pigment-based black ink with dye-based cyan, magenta, yellow, “photo black” and photo blue inks.
  3. Excellent 13-inch-wide printer for photographers: Canon imagePROGRAF PRO-300 printer, with ten pigmented inks.
  4. Buy extra Wasabi Power brand batteries (from Blue Nook / Amazon.com).
  5. Portable charger battery packs at Amazon. I use the Mi Premium Power Bank Pro 10000mAh, 18W Fast Charging Slim. Great for travelling away from electrical outlets! It efficiently powers a phone 40% longer than rival Anker PowerCore 10000, says PCMag. It thankfully supports pass-through charging of itself AND your device at the same time. Fits most phones; includes USB-C adapter cable.
  6. SanDisk Extreme PRO 128GB UHS-I/U3 SDXC Flash Memory Card (at Amazon) fits weeks of shooting, great for 4K video. Or cheaper: SanDisk 16GB Extreme SDHC Memory Card.
  7. A clear glass filter protects precious lenses from scratches & catastrophic drops. I speak from experience! Get a clear glass filter, NOT a UV filter, which modern multi-coated lenses have made redundant. Example: high quality B+W 72mm XS-Pro Clear MRC-Nano 007M Filter fits my Sony RX10 III (read article).
  8. Mount a circular polarizing filter (B+W brand at Amazon) only to remove reflections or haze, or to contrast clouds with polarized sky. Don’t forget to immediately take it off for all other conditions, as it can block 1-1.5 stops of light.
  9. 2x Cactus Wireless Flash Transceiver Duo triggers your flash or camera wirelessly at distances up to 328 feet.
  10. Critical editing & organizing software: Adobe Creative Cloud Photography plan (Lightroom Classic CC 7.x and Photoshop CC) speeds modification (non-destructively), editing, sorting, and labeling of images. Lightroom version 6 added Photo Merge to Panorama and HDR. In 2016, Lightroom CC subscription added Boundary Warp essential for stitching panoramas quicker, and Dehaze to remove haze in skies & glass, as a leap beyond Clarity. (Adobe Photoshop software lets advanced users manipulate complex Layers such as for printing, or CMYK color space for publishing.) If your Lightroom CC subscription expires, you can still view, organize and export (but not Develop) images.
  11. Free editor for stitching panoramas from multiple overlapping images: Image Composite Editor (ICE) (from Microsoft Research Computational Photography Group) was faster and sharper than my old Photoshop CS5.
  12. Tamrac digital camera bag protects your precious device on the road.
  13. Slik “Sprint Pro II GM” Tripod has a built-in quick-change plate, good for small cameras.
  14. Datacolor Spyder4Express Color Calibration System: Calibrate your PC monitor and laptop before printing photo files so editing efforts match color standards without color shifts. The pricier Datacolor Spyder4Elite Display Calibration System accounts for ambient light and calibrates projectors. Better yet, get a factory precalibrated monitor like mine: ASUS PA328Q 32″ 16:9 4K/UHD IPS Monitor
  15. Pacific Image PowerSlide X: Batch scan 50 slides, up to 10,000 dpi, excellent dynamic range of 4.2, with critically important Magic Touch infrared dust and scratch removal (ICE).
  16. Plustek OpticFilm 8200i SE scanner (2014) reincarnates your slides & film digitally, with important infrared/ICE removal of dust & scratches.

TIPS for travel in adverse conditions

  1. Weather & dust protection: Prudent bagging can avoid the extra expense of a weather-sealed body & lens – keep a camera handy, safely in a front pouch on your chest or hip (where it can be retrieved more quickly than from a pack on your back). Adverse fluctuations of temperature & humidity, or dusty conditions, or sea spray all require cameras to be double-protected in a zip-lock plastic bag inside the padded pouch. Use a soft, absorbent silk cloth to wipe away moisture or dust from lens & body before bagging.
  2. Cold batteries: Using camera batteries below 40 degrees Fahrenheit (or 4 Celsius) loses their charge quicker, causing camera shut down or lock. Revive and extend battery life in cold or below-freezing weather by warming an extra battery or two in an interior pocket near your skin and swapping with the camera’s battery after every 5-10 minutes of cold exposure.
  3. Satellite communication: Stay in touch everywhere in the world via Iridium satellite with DeLorme inReach Explorer (7 oz; buy at Amazon): send and receive 160-character text messages with GPS coordinates (accurate to five meters) to cell numbers or email addresses worldwide and post updates to social media. This new, affordable technology connects campers, hikers, hunters, backpackers, alpinists, and backcountry skiers who often venture outside of cell phone networks. The portable 7-ounce device includes a color-coded map with waypoints, elevation readings, current speed, average moving speed, and compass. Also, you can trigger an SOS, receive delivery confirmation, and communicate with DeLorme’s 24/7 search-and-rescue monitoring center.

Terminology and metric conversions

  • oz = ounces. Above camera weights in ounces (oz) include battery and memory card.
  • g = grams. Multiple ounces by 28.35 to get grams.
  • sec = second.
  • mm = millimeters. A centimeter (cm) equals 10 millimeters. Multiply centimeters (cm) by 0.3937 to get inches.
  • ILC = Interchangeable Lens Compact = “midsize mirrorless camera” term used above
  • DSLR = Digital Single Lens Reflex = a traditional camera where an optical viewfinder uses a mirror to see through the interchangeable lens.
  • EVF = Electronic Viewfinder.
  • LCD = Liquid Crystal Display.
    • OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) beats an LCD in dynamic range from darkest to brightest and consumes less power.
  • LPH or LPPH = resolvable lines per picture height = the best empirical measure of real resolution of a camera’s sensor for a given lens (independent of pixel pitch or megapixel count). A camera with higher LPH can make sharper large prints. Look up cameras on dpreview.com to find absolute vertical LPH judged by photographing a PIMA/ISO 12233 camera resolution test chart under standardized lighting conditions. Note which lens, settings, and camera body was used in each test, and compare with others within the same web site.
  • equivalent lens = To compare lenses on cameras having different sensor sizes, equiv or equivalent lens refers to what would be the lens focal length (measured in mm or millimeters) that would give the same angle of view on a “full frame35mm-size sensor (or 35mm film camera, using 135 film cartridge).
    • Compared lenses are “equivalent” only in terms of angle of view. (To determine sharpness or quality, read lens reviews which analyze at 100% pixel views.)
    • Crop factor” = how many times smaller is the diagonal measurement of a small sensor than a “full frame” 35-mm size sensor. For example, the 1.5x crop factor for Nikon DX format (APS-C size sensor) makes a lens labeled 18-200mm to be equivalent in angle of view to a 27-300mm focal length lens used on a 35mm film camera. The 2x crop factor for Micro Four Thirds sensors makes a lens labeled 14-140mm to be equivalent in angle of view to a 28-280mm lens used on a 35mm film camera.
  • Superzoom lenses
    • In 2013, “superzoom” referred to lenses of about 15x zoom range or larger. Steady quality improvements in the resolving power of sensors has made possible superzoom cameras in ever smaller sizes. As superzoom range increases, laws of physics require lenses to focus upon smaller sensors (light detectors) or else to increase lens size. For a given level (most recent year) of technological advancement, a camera with physically larger sensor (bigger light detecting area) should capture better quality for a given zoom lens range.
    • 10x zoom” = zoom lens telephoto divided by wide angle focal length. For example, a 14-140mm focal length zoom has a 10x zoom range (140 divided by 14). An 18-200mm zoom has an 11x zoom range (200 divided by 18).
  • equivalent” F-stop = refers to the F-stop (F-number) on a full-frame-sensor camera which has the same hole diameter as the F-stop of the camera lens being compared. The concept of “equivalent” F-stop lets you compare capabilities for creating shallow depth of field on cameras with different-size sensors. Smaller-sensor cameras use shorter focal lengths for the same field of view, so at a given F-stop they have a smaller physical aperture size, meaning more depth of field (with less blur in front of and behind the focused subject). Formula: F Number (or Relative Aperture) = actual focal length of lens divided by diameter of the entrance pupil.

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Sensor size comparisons for digital cameras - PhotoSeek.com

In this illustration, compare digital camera sensor sizes: full frame 35mm, APS-C, Micro Four Thirds, 1-inch, 1/1.7″ and 1/2.5” Type. For new digital cameras, a bigger sensor area captures better quality, but requires larger diameter, bulkier lenses. To optimize the size of a serious travel camera, consider 1-inch Type sensor or up to APS-C sensor size. “Full-frame 35mm” sensor / film size (36 x 24 mm) is a standard for comparison, with a diagonal field-of-view crop factor = 1.0 In comparison, a pocketable camera’s 1/2.5” Type sensor crops the light gathering by 6.0x smaller diagonally (with a surface area 35 times smaller than full frame).

Regarding smartphones — with great power comes great responsibility (as says the Greek “Sword of Damocles” anecdote, and more recently, Marvel Comics’ Spider-Man). Sadly, monetized social media has often enabled extreme memes to shout-down both civility and reality itself. To my relief, Canadian psychologist Steven Pinker restores our faith in the triumph of public good in his important books:

BEST WIDE ANGLE LENS for APS-C; or stitch panorama

On your APS-C sensor camera, would you like a view wider than the kit zoom lens, which is limited to 18mm or 16mm (27 or 24mm equivalent)? The following specialty zoom lenses shoot unusually wide angles of view, with great depth of field (such as for tight interior spaces, architecture, real estate, slot canyons, or sweeping landscapes):

For Sony Alpha A6300A6000 and NEX mirrorless cameras (APS-C size sensor):

  • Sony 10-18mm f/4 OSS Alpha E-mount wide-angle zoom lens (8 oz, 2.75×2.5 inches, SEL1018, 2012) thankfully has OSS image stabilization for more hand-held photography free of a tripod. Its angle of view is that of a 15-27mm in terms of full-frame equivalent. SEL1018 is good for shooting architecture indoors and out, plus landscapes and slot canyons. (It is significantly sharper than Sony’s 18-200mm, SEL18200 lens.) SEL1018 is sharpest at f/5.6 to f/8 as you zoom, with least distortion from 14-18mm.
  • Although SEL1018 wasn’t designed for the full-frame Sony Alpha A7 Mirrorless Digital Camera (2013, 17 oz body) or Sony Alpha A7 II camera, you can easily crop away the corner vignetting for surprisingly satisfying results.

For Nikon DX and Canon EF-S DSLR cameras with APS-C sensor, the wide-angle choices unfortunately lack image stabilization:

  • Tokina 12-28mm f/4.0 AT-X Pro DX lens (19 oz, 2013) is sharper than the following older lenses:
    • Sigma 10-20mm F4-5.6 EX DC HSM
    • Tamron 10-24mm F3.5-4.5 Di-II
    • Tokina 12-24mm f/4.0
  • Tokina AT-X Pro 11-16mm f/2.8 DX II wide angle lens (19 oz, 2012) has sharper, faster, professional-level, pricier optics, best leveraged on a 24 megapixel camera such as Nikon D3300 (2014, 16 oz body).
  • Caveats: The above wide-angle Tokina lenses are not image-stabilized, and thereby increase tripod use. Instead, consider the stabilized Sony 10-18mm OSS lens. Image stabilization (such as Nikon Vibration Reduction/VR or Canon IS or Sony OSS or Tamron VC) is most important for telephoto lenses to counteract hand held shake at slow shutter speeds. When built into some wide angle lenses, this feature helps you shoot more sharply at slower shutter speeds (such as in dimmer light), helping to blur flowing water or moving subjects while keeping non-moving subjects sharp in the same image.

Note: These wide angle lenses don’t work well for close-focus (macro) photography − instead use specialty macro lens. 

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Stitch panoramas instead of buying a specialty wide-angle lens

Instead of buying a specialty wide-angle lens above, it’s cheaper to stitch a panorama from multiple shots:

  • To easily capture landscape images wider than your 18mm kit lens, simply stitch a panorama from a series of adjacent images shot with your existing lens.
  • Stitching multiplies megapixel count to compensate for compromised sharpness of megazoom and kit lenses. But if you want to enlarge prints bigger than 2 or 3 feet without the need for stitching, shoot with sharper lenses such as the above Tokinas on a tripod.

Prayer flags express compassion at this monument to fallen climbers, at Annapurna South Base Camp (ABC) in the Annapurna Range of Nepal.

The above panorama was stitched from three overlapping images. Prayer flags express compassion at this monument to fallen climbers, at Annapurna South Base Camp (ABC) in the Annapurna Range of Nepal. Published in “Light Travel: Photography on the Go” book by Tom Dempsey 2009, 2010. Published in Wilderness Travel 2010 Catalog of Adventures.

How to build a panorama:

If you don’t have Adobe Lightroom or PhotoShop to build your panoramas, try one of these:

  • Image Composite Editor (ICE) for Windows only, FREE from Microsoft Research Computational Photography Group. (I found that ICE was faster and sharper than using the old Photoshop version CS5.)
  • Hugin: FREE for Mac & Windows. Hugin is harder to learn & use than Microsoft’s ICE.

Nowadays for most people, a smartphone camera is the easiest way to make sweeping panoramas with decent quality. Just select the Panorama option, hold the phone vertically, press (or speak the command for) the shutter release, and sweep steadily left to right, followed by a second press of shutter release to finish recording. Pinch zoom to check sharp details in the recorded image. Smartphones made after 2015 can capture good shadow detail in fairly sharp panoramas by default (using AUTO HDR).

Most digital cameras have an automatic Panorama mode on their mode dial, but I find that automatic panorama modes often blur detail as you sweep the camera, or they can fail with an error message unless you carefully practice the steady sweeping motion. Your results may vary. (Some compact cameras don’t allow holding vertically during the sweep, so just horizontal shots are stitched, thereby making a less-useful proportion: an overly squat and wide image.)

For the best quality, I prefer to shoot a panorama manually on a good camera (with large sensor) as a series of steady shots as follows:

  1. Hold the camera very still for each shot, swiveling as if the center of the lens were mounted on a fixed post. Shoot quickly (but steadily) if subjects are moving.
  2. Overlap each image by a third, one after another in a row, column, or array.
  3. The distance at which important subjects are focused can optionally vary shot to shot, near or far.
  4. If brightness varies drastically across the intended panorama, try to expose for a true midtone within each separate frame, but ensuring that exposure transitions aren’t extreme, shot to shot. If panorama has a consistent brightness, try shooting with a fixed Manual exposure. Shooting raw instead of JPEG gives you more leeway to simply use autoexposure.

A tripod is not needed if light is sufficiently bright for sharp hand-held photography. Look for a camera with a built-in level indicator such as in Panasonic ZS100 or Sony RX10 III or Sony Alpha A6300.

Adobe Lightroom notes:

Adobe Lightroom Version 6 (released April 2015) and later includes Photo Merge to Panorama (and to HDR): Photo > Photo Merge > Panorama

But as of 2017, the quickest and best Photo Merge is in Lightroom CC (Creative Cloud version), which adds the wonderful Boundary Warp with Auto Crop, which retains about 20% more image around the edges (without needing frequent time-consuming touch ups around the edges in Photoshop). Lightroom CC stitches raw files into a top quality Digital Negative panorama .DNG file which can be edited with large tonal leeway AFTER stitching, just like raw. This is a big time-saver compared to earlier versions of Lightroom or other programs, where you had to edit each image first, THEN stitch. Always edit from the original raw file format (or from the largest, highest quality JPEG directly from the camera; because each time you re-save a JPEG, it loses quality).

For travel, zoom flexibility beats interchanging specialty lenses

For travel portability and convenience, I prefer the all-in-one Sony RX10 IV camera (read my review) which sharply captures 24-600mm equivalent, with up to 4.5 stops of stabilization benefit (slower shutter speed handheld). Its 25x zoom is sharper across the frame at more zoom settings than the following 11x to 19x travel zooms shot on 24-megapixel APS-C cameras:

  • Nikon VR, Canon IS, or Sony OSS 18-200mm 11x zoom travel lenses (at Amazon).
  • 19x zoom Tamron 16-300mm f/3.5-6.3 Di II VC PZD MACRO lens (Amazon).
  • These travel zoom lenses equal the kit lens sharpness, without the need for constant swapping of two or more lenses in the field. Their image stabilization feature (VR, IS, OSS, or VC) supports 2 to 4 stops slower hand held shutter speed, which is critical for on-the-go photographers who want to minimize tripod usage.
  • When compared to faster Pro lenses, the handy Nikon VR or Canon IS 18-200mm travel lenses gain in image stabilization and compositional zoom versatility what they lose in absolute optical sharpness. Stitch sets of 18mm images into wide or tall panoramas. Better yet, zoom to 22mm and set aperture to f/8 to optimize sharpness on the Nikon 18-200mm VR lens.
  • Check lens reviews or test yourself to find the sharpest zoom and aperture settings for your specific lens. For example, the f/4 Sony SEL1670Z lens for A6500/A6300/A6000 is sharpest at f/5.6 across its 4x zoom range.

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